Bahá'í Library Online
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Articles / papers, published
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Published academic articles. See also unpublished articles, essays and blog posts, and Reviews.
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  1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the World Stage, by Iraj Ghanooni (2022). A contrast of the spiritual purpose of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's first visit to Paris with the secular aims of some famous Iranian contemporaries who went there around the same time; includes philosophical discussions and an analysis of two talks by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  2. 100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, by Seena Fazel and Graham Hassall, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Overview of the first 100 years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, including growth and the distinctive aspects of this community, external affairs, the role of women, and Bahá'í studies. [about]
  3. 1844 Ottoman 'Edict of Toleration' in Bahá'í Secondary Literature, The, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). This edict, issued the year the Bahá'í era began, permitted Jews to return to Palestine. The return of Jews to the Holy Land was thought by Christians to be an event anticipated by biblical prophecy, heralding the Second Advent of Christ. [about]
  4. 1893 Russian Publication of Baha'u'llah's Last Will and Testament, The: An Academic Attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Successorship, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2017). On the content of the Kitab-i-Ahdi, its manuscript history, and textual variants; Andalib's eyewitness account of its unveiling; Tumanski's scholarly work; contemporary attestation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's successorship by Tumanski and other Russian notables. [about]
  5. A Propos de Deux Manuscrits "Babis" de la Bibliotheque Nationale, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Revue de l'histoire des religions, 47 (1903). Regarding the correct titles/classification of two versions of the manuscript "Histoire de la secte des Bâbis" from the library of Comte de Gobineau. [about]
  6. "A.J." and the Introduction of the Baha'i Faith into Poland, by Jan T. Jasion, in Bahá'í Studies, 4 (1978). On the earliest mentions of the Bábí Faith in Polish, and the writings of Aleksander Walerian Jablonowski, a well-known historian and linguist who met Babis in Baghdad in 1870. [about]
  7. Abbas Effendi: His personality, work, and followers, by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens, in Fortnightly Review, Volume 95 (1911). Overview of the Bahá'í Faith, including a personal interview with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  8. 'Abdu'l Bahá's Tablet of the Two Calls: Civilizing Barbarity, by Manooher Mofidi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). The relatioship between civilization and barbarity, and the capabilities of humanity. [about]
  9. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Portrayals from East and West, by Ali-Kuli Khan and John Bosch, in World Order, 6:1 (1971). Recollections of Abdu'l-Bahá, taken from papers of Ali-Kuli Khan and the conversations of John and Louise Bosch. [about]
  10. `Abdu'l-Bahá: Speaking in America, by Allan L. Ward, in World Order, 6:2 (1971). Overview of Abdu'l-Bahá's travels through North America, newspaper coverage of his talks, and first-hand accounts of meeting him. [about]
  11. 'Abdu'l-Bahá: The Center of the Covenant, by Juliet Thompson, in World Order, 7:12 (1948). 'Abdu'l-Bahá's vibrant personality and unique function as the Centre of the Covenant. His role as the servant of glory; the perfect exemplar; the stronghold of the Faith; and as link between the Heroic and Golden Ages of the Faith. [about]
  12. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Ezra Pound's Circle, by Elham Afnan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:2 (1994). On the 1911 meeting between Ezra Pound, the famous American modernist poet, and 'Abdu'l-Bahá; links between the Bahá'í Faith and a number of important avant-garde circles in the West. [about]
  13. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Ghaffár Zanúzí: ALM Nicolas's 'Abdoul-Béha et la situation', 1912, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). A translation of ALM Nicolas’s ‘Abdoul-Béha et la situation’ (1912) reproducing letters by 'Abdu’l-Bahá and Mírzá Ghaffár Zanúzí. [about]
  14. `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Iranian Constitutional Revolution: Embracing Principles while Disapproving Methodologies, by Mina Yazdani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). Abdu’l-Bahá’s orientation toward the Constitutional Revolution of 1906–1911: he embraced the principles of constitutionalism while disapproving of confrontation; real social change needs to start at the moral-ethical level. [about]
  15. `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Bahá's relocating the Haifa/Akka Bahá'í community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
  16. `Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt: September 1910, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Historical and political background of Abdu'l-Bahá's various travels to Egypt, discussion of the people he met, and press coverage. [about]
  17. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: Introduction, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). 'Abdu'l-Bahá's answers to questions posed by Pastor Monnier in Paris in 1913 on Christian subjects, notably the nature of Christ, and the relationship between Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  18. Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Myth for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck, in Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh (2013). Overview of the event, press coverage, publications of the speech, the Emancipation Proclamation "myth" and its historical influence, the role of whites, and the rhetoric of progress. [about]
  19. 'Abdu'l-Baha's commentary on the Islamic tradition 'God doth give victory to this religion by means of a wicked man': Provisional translation and notes, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Background and translation of a Turkish tablet by Abdu'l-Bahá commenting on a hadith. [about]
  20. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary on the Qur'ánic Verses Concerning the Overthrow of the Byzantines: The Stages of the Soul, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). Commentary on the first few verses of the Quranic Sura of Rum; nine esoteric or mystical interpretations of the word al-Rum, transl. "Rome" or "Byzantium"; different types of soul; the soul's progress through the realms of creation. [about]
  21. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Elucidation of the Concept of the Oneness of Humanity During His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Today the Bahá'í teaching of oneness of humankind is widely accepted, but in the early 1900s it was a difficult concept to convey or put into practice. Abdu'l-Bahá made this principle a centerpiece of his talks and actions in the West. [about]
  22. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Bahá's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
  23. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Explanation of the Teachings of Bahá'u'lláh Tablets and Talks Translated into English (1911-1920), by Peter Terry, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). A review of the varied lists of Bahá'í principles' presented by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in various of his writings and talks translated into English. Contrary to popular belief there is no standard list, and some 38 separate principles can be identified. [about]
  24. Abdu'l-Baha's First Thousand-Verse Tablet: History and Provisional Translation, by Ahang Rabbani and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16:1 (2010). Tablet revealed in 1897 in response to events in Akka and the rebellion against Abdu'l-Bahá by his family members after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
  25. 'Abdu'l-Baha's Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians, by Muhammad Qazvini, in World Order, 30:1 (1998). Muhammad Qazvini's and Siyyid Hasan Taqizadeh's descriptions of their 1911 meetings with `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris. Preceded by a brief biography of Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  26. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to Darwinism: Its Historical and Philosophical Context, by Keven Brown, in Evolution and Bahá'í Belief, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 12 (2001). Editor's foreword to the collection of articles Evolution and Bahá'í Belief. [about]
  27. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to the Doctrine of the Unity of Existence, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:3-4 (2001). Includes provisional translation of Tablet on the Unity of Existence. [about]
  28. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet on the Functioning of the Universal House of Justice: A Provisional Translation and Commentary, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). A translation of and commentary on a tablet by Abdu'l-Bahá on the functioning and powers of the Universal House of Justice, and a lengthy critique of an earlier translation by Juan Cole. [about]
  29. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to North America, 1912: A Preliminary Analysis, by Robert Stockman, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the itinerary of this tour, the state of the Bahá'í community and the general social context of the time, and some themes of Abdu'l-Bahá's teachings. [about]
  30. `Abdu'l-Bahá, le porte-drapeau d'une nouvelle civilisation: `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Standard Bearer of a New Civilization, by Shapour Rassekh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4/24:3-4 (2013). Abdu'l-Bahá's mission and objectives in visiting North American, bringing to the West his principles for a new global age. Includes French original, "‘Abdu’l-Bahá, le porte-drapeau d’une nouvelle civilisation." [about]
  31. `Abdu'l-Bahá `Abbás, by Necati Alkan, in The World of the Bahá'í Faith, ed. Robert Stockman (2021). Abdu’l-Bahá’s life story, from his childhood in Iran and as an exile for 60 years in the Ottoman Empire; his unique station, unequalled in religious history; travels in the West; achievements and contributions to the expansion of His Father’s religion. [about]
  32. Above All Barriers: The Story of Louis G. Gregory, by H. Elsie Austin (1955). Article, published as a pamphlet, summarizing the life of this famous lawyer and social activist. [about]
  33. Absolute Poverty and Utter Nothingness, by Rodney H. Clarken, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Bahá’u’lláh’s ideas of poverty as detachment, and nothingness as selflessness. Cites some commonalities in concepts of detachment and nothingness from Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, Muhammad and Socrates as five of the greatest philosophers or prophets. [about]
  34. Academic Irrelevance or Disciplinary Blind-Spot?: Middle Eastern Studies and the Baha'i Faith Today, by Ismael Velasco, in Middle East Studies Association Bulletin (2001). Possible reasons for the lack of attention to the Bahá'í religion in Middle Eastern academic studies. Why is it considered marginal? What are the conceptual boundaries involved and their limitations? [about]
  35. Accessing literature on the Bahá'í Faith: Emerging search technologies and recent results, by Graham Hassall, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Survey of search technologies that can be used to find documentation on the Bahá'í religion, and a summary of results of such searches for the period 2003-2006. [about]
  36. Account of the Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, An, by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield, in Bahá'í World, 15 (1968-1973) (1973). On the last days of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, his funeral, and tributes on his behalf. [about]
  37. Achieving Reconciliation in a Conflicting World, by Ismael Velasco, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). The dynamics of conflict against the backdrop of globalization, and religion's role in fostering unity. A "logic of reconciliation" will allow us to find harmony among ideas, individuals, and communities. [about]
  38. Achieving Universal Participation of Older Adults: An Exploration of Its Challenges and Spiritual Foundations, by Catherine Bigonnesse and Jean Marc Bigonnesse, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:4 (2015). On involving older adults in the process of participation in society; some of the root causes of ageism, such as avoiding the topic of death and a materialistic view of the soul; the role of older adults in the process of community building. [about]
  39. Action Research, by Rhett Diessner, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). The purpose of action research is "transformative action," action that makes a difference in the life-worlds of both the researcher and the researched. [about]
  40. Active Force and That Which Is Its Recipient, The: A Bahá'í View of Creativity, by Rick Johnson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:4 (2017). On creativity and the pervasive nature of this concept in Bahá’í thought. The universe is coded to be creative; it exists in a perpetually generative, dynamic state and that creativity is the fundamental reality of the universe. [about]
  41. Addressing the Rising Tide of Globalization and Amorality in the Present World Order and Its Implications on Extremes of Wealth and Poverty, by Rama Ayman, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). On inequality within most nations in the world at a time when wealth disparity between nations has been falling; the impact that amorality and globalization have on wealth inequality; Bahá'í teachings on alleviating extremes of wealth and poverty. [about]
  42. Advancing in Bahá'í-inspired Education, by Sona Farid-Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). A number of diverse educators labor in diverse cultural and ecological settings to identify educational needs, develop elements of a coherent pedagogy, and create a series of teaching-learning experience, in light of Bahá'u'lláh's vision for humanity. [about]
  43. Adventures in Biographical Research: John and William Cormick, by Vincent Flannery, in Solas, 4 (2004). Biographical details of the only European known to have met the Bab, William Cormick, and his father John Cormick. [about]
  44. Affirmative Action and the Jurisprudence of Equitable Inclusion: Towards a New Consensus on Gender and Race Relations, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). The principle of equity and the Bahá’í emphasis on unity in diversity as a basis for considering Affirmative Action in relationship to remedying past injustices to women and minorities. [about]
  45. Africanity, Womanism, and Constructive Resilience: Some Reflections, by Layli Maparyan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). The meanings of the metaphor "pupil of the eye;" experiences of growing up African-American in the West; overcoming cosmological negation; the African worldview on nature, humanity, and creation; gendered expressions of African culture. [about]
  46. Age of Anxiety and the Century of Light, The: Twentieth-Century Literature, the Poet's Mission, and the Vision of World Unity , by Suheil Badi Bushrui, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, and Kahlil Gibran were writers who recognized and confronted the spiritual and intellectual crisis of their time. The mission of the poet is to bear witness, maintain the integrity of language, and express truths. [about]
  47. Agriculture: A Fundamental Principle, by Paul Hanley, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). The Bahá'í emphasis on agricultural development as a “fundamental principle” conductive to human advancement; the need to redesign food and agricultural systems, locally and internationally; wider social implications. [about]
  48. Ahmad Kasravi and the "Purification" of Persian: A Study in Nationalist Motivation, by Amin Banani, in Nation & Ideology: Essays in Honor of Wayne S. Vucinich (1981). Political theory of a modernist Iranian reformer, also known for his criticisms of the Bahá'í Faith. Contains no mention of the Faith. (Offsite.) [about]
  49. Akka Traditions (hadith) in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 4 (2003). The probable source for the Islamic traditions about Akka in Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf — probably from a 6th-century work named "Fadá’il ‘Akká wa ‘Asqalán" based on hadith transmitted by Bahá ad-Dín al-Qásim in Damascus in 581-585. [about]
  50. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement XIV (2004). The life and ideas of the leading African-American intellectual Alain Locke and his involvement with the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  51. Alain Locke: Baha'i Philosopher, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Biography of one of the important African American intellectuals and his impact on American thought and culture. Includes two letters written by or on behalf of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  52. Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism, by Christopher Buck, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). The worldview of the African American thinker Alain Locke as a Bahá'í, his secular perspective as a philosopher, and the synergy between his confessional and professional essays. [about]
  53. Alain Locke on Race, Religion, and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck, in The Bahá'í Faith and African American History, chapter 3 (2018). Locke was cynical about the prospect of real progress in race relations within Christianity itself, but he saw potential in Bahá'í efforts to promote race amity and making democracy more egalitarian in terms of the rights of minorities. [about]
  54. Alain Locke's "Moral Imperatives for World Order" Revisited, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:1 (2019). In public speeches presented in 1944 Locke argues that racism, although an American problem, is not purely a domestic issue; it has bilateral and multilateral consequences; unity of races, religions, and nations is a moral imperative. [about]
  55. Alain Locke's Philosophy of Democracy, by Christopher Buck, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). For Locke, democracy was more than its narrow political definition, but multidimensional, encompassing local, moral, political, economic, and cultural stages — a model against which he measured America’s fidelity to its democratic ideal. [about]
  56. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Baha'i Pluralist: includes Alain Locke in his Own Words: Three Essays and a poem, by Christopher Buck and Alain Locke, in World Order, 36:3 (2005). Article by Buck, poem "The Moon Maiden" and three essays by Locke introduced by Buck: "The Gospel for the Twentieth Century," "Peace between Black and White in the United States," and "Five Phases of Democracy: Farewell Address at Talladega College." [about]
  57. Alexander, Agnes: 70 years of service, by Duane Troxel, in Bahá'í News (1983). Biography of a prominent American Bahá'í and Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
  58. Algunas Reflexiones Sobre el Ministerio de la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Ali Nakhjavani (2009). [about]
  59. Altruism and Extensivity in the Bahá'í Religion, by Wendy M. Heller and Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:4 (1992). Bahá'í teachings relating to research on altruism and prosocial behavior; the interaction of spiritual and social transformation through beliefs and practices that encourage the development of altruistic personalities; socialization and discipline. [about]
  60. Alzheimer's Disease: An Eclipse before Sunset, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:3 (1989). Caring for victims of Alzheimer's Disease can be a formidable task. This paper offers some suggestions, based on clinical observations and illumined by the Bahá’í teachings, for meeting those needs. [about]
  61. Ambivalence of Hostility and Modification: Patriarchy's Ideological Negotiation With Women, Modernity and Cinema in Iran, by Elnaz Nasehi, in International Journal of Advanced Research, 8:10 (2020). Passing mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the context of how forces behind the Constitutional Revolution paved the way for the presence of women in public sphere and Iranian cinema. [about]
  62. Ameen Rihani and the Unity of Religion: The Politics of Time and the Politics of Eternity, by Suheil Badi Bushrui, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). Overview of the life and thought of a Lebanese-American writer, intellectual, and political activist, who believed in the oneness of religions and the brotherhood of nations and devoted his life to promoting East-West understanding. [about]
  63. American Bahá'í Community in the Nineties, The, by Robert Stockman, in America's Alternative Religions, Timothy Miller, ed. (1995). Overview of the American Bahá'í community in the 1990s: contemporary issues; priorities and concerns; the Bahá'í impact on American society; the future and social turmoil. [about]
  64. Analysis of the Salient Features of Risáliy-i-Ja'faríyyih, An, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). This treatise, one of the major writings of the Báb, was written before He had disclosed His complete station of prophethood to the public. It comments on an Islamic prayer for the advent of the promised Qa'im. Includes translation. [about]
  65. Anatomy of Figuration, The: Maimonides' Exegesis of Natural Convulsions in Apocalyptic Texts (Guide II.29), by Christopher Buck, in Sephardic Heritage Update (2020). Insights of medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides on figurative language and symbolic exegesis in his book The Guide for the Perplexed. The Bahá'í Faith is mentioned in the Introduction; some interpretations are similar to concepts from the Iqan. [about]
  66. Ancient Poems as Means of Revelation, in an Early Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the importance of poetry in the history of the Faith and in its Writings, and absolute detachment as a prerequisite for attainment unto the Divine Presence. Includes translation of a Tablet by Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
  67. Andalusí Theosophy: A Recontextualization, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The role of interconfessionalism in the emergence of Islamic and Jewish theosophical movements in 10th- to 13th-century Spain.  [about]
  68. "Angle of Ascent", The: Process and Achievement in the Work of Robert Hayden, by Ann Boyles, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:4 (1992). Hayden's poetry explores the process of individual and collective social and spiritual transformation in the contexts of contemporary culture, the Bahá'í Faith, black history, art, literature, nature, disease, and suffering. [about]
  69. Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit, by Anne Gordon Perry, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). On the friendship and working relationship between Seattle art patron Hauberg and Seattle-based painter Tobey. [about]
  70. Another Look at Achieving Peace by the Year 2000, by John Huddleston, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:2 (1999). The process of globalization in terms of trade, culture, corporations, migration, environment, and crime; how to maintain peace; the failure of the world's leaders to achieve peace; institutional frameworks for peace and restructuring the United Nations. [about]
  71. Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
  72. Anti-Bahá'í Campaign, The, by Shahrough Akhavi, in Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran: Clergy-State Relations in the Pahlavi Period (1980). Detailed historical account of the 1955 persecutions in Iran. [about]
  73. Antinomies of Reason and the Theology of Revelation: Some Preliminary Thoughts, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). A thesis of Progressive Revelation offers a solution to the fundamental antinomies of philosophical discourse. This concept is applied to the Kantian antinomies of reason: the central question of modern philosophy. [about]
  74. Apathy and Violence, by Hossain Danesh, in Bahá'í Studies, 1 (1976). The nature of aggression, violence, fear and anxiety; threats and opportunities an organism encounters in life; and the relevance of Bahá'í teachings to preventing violence. [about]
  75. Apocalypse and Millennium: Catastrophe, Progress, and the Lesser Peace, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 12:1-4 (2002). Some approaches to the Lesser Peace in light of millennialism, and the Bahá'í vision of a divine plan leading to the Lesser Peace and the Most Great Peace which has "progressive” and "catastrophic" aspects. [about]
  76. Apocalyptic Thinking and Process Thinking: A Bahá'í Contribution to Religious Thought, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). The process of change in religious thinking and how it manifests in expectations about the Lesser Peace, both from Bahá'í texts and within the community. Includes discussions of "the calamity," and of non-Bahá'í political evolution in the 20th century. [about]
  77. Apostasía en al Marco Jurídico Bahá'í, La, by Badi Villar Cardenas, in La Pluma del Conocimiento, 1 (2001). Este ensayo constituye uno de los primeros esfuerzos por construir una marco jurídico para los procesos de apostasía y expulsión en la comunidad bahá'í. [about]
  78. Applications of Positive Psychotherapy for Marriage and Family Therapy, by Nossrat Peseschkian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). To understand observed behaviour, we need to consider transcultural conditions as well as those in the personal history of the patient. This approach underlies the author's concept for a conflict-centred therapy. [about]
  79. Architectural Blossoming of the Lotus, by S. Naharoy, in source unknown (2011). Architectural descriptions, blueprints, geometry, photos, and history of the design and construction of the Bahá'í temple in India. [about]
  80. Are the Characteristics of Exiles Different from Immigrants?: The Case of Iranians in Los Angeles, by Georges Sabagh and Mehdi Bozorgmehr, in Institute for Social Science Research Working Papers, 2:5 (1986). Five passing references to "Bahai" — but in a statistical context only — about whether the large influx of Iranians into LA in the late 1970s added a sizeable and distinctive minority to the population of this metropolitan area. [about]
  81. Arguments for the Existence of God in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Writings, by Mikhail Sergeev, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vols. 2-3 (2014). On the basic typology of philosophical arguments for the existence of God; classical vs contemporary views; Abdu'l-Bahá's arguments from nature and from history. [about]
  82. Aristotelian Substratum of the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). There is a pervasive and far-reaching congruence of Aristotle and the Bahá’í Writings. This Aristotelian substratum makes it is possible to resolve many apparent paradoxes in the Writings. [about]
  83. Art and Architecture: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fariborz Sahba, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). This essay explores the spiritual significance of the relationship between traditional and new forms of artistic expression from the author’s experience as an architect. [about]
  84. Art of Rhetoric in the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, The, by Jack McLean, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Outline and illustration of six defining elements of Shoghi Effendi's rhetorical art, which show both classical and particular or atypical uses. [about]
  85. Articulating a Consultative Epistemology: Toward a Reconciliation of Truth and Relativism, by Todd Smith and Michael Karlberg, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 19:1-4 (2009). Epistemology has a perennial tension between two contrasting approaches to knowledge: the search for foundational truth vs. the relativity of truth. Consultation can help resolve paradoxical truth claims to develop an integrative approach to knowledge. [about]
  86. Artist and the Grammarian, The, by Otto Donald Rogers, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 19:1-4 (2009). On the process and meaning of creating art; its effect on the mind and the brain, the nature of painting; spiritual foundations of the natural world. [about]
  87. Artist, Seeker and Seer: A vocabulary and a perspective for the appreciation and creation of art inspired by the Bahá'í Writings, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies, 10 (1982). Imagery and metaphors from the Bahá'í Writings guide the appreciation and creation of art. They demonstrate that criticism vs creativity, logic vs. passion, and historicity vs. poetry have already been brought to a state of unity. [about]
  88. Asking Questions: The Independent Investigation of Truth, by Edwin McCloughan, in Solas, 1 (2001). On understanding and applying this primary principle of the Faith. [about]
  89. Aspects of Bahá'í Ethics, Some, by Udo Schaefer, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 16:1-4 (2006). Summary of concepts from Schaefer's book Bahá'í Ethics in the Light of Scripture. [about]
  90. Aspects of Bahá'í Scholarship, Some, by Peter J. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). Four ideas that characterize Bahá’í scholarship: the central position of the Word in the acquisition of knowledge; the interconnected Bahá’í model of the world; progressive nature of Bahá’í law; organic relationship of scholarship and the Covenant. [about]
  91. "At Dawn the Friend came to my bed': An Early Fruit of the Supreme Pen, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). A quasidih, a dialogue between the Beloved and the Poet as a lover. One of eight Persian poems Bahá'u'lláh signed "Dervish" and revealed in Kurdistan, circa 1854-1856. [about]
  92. At Home in the Ghettos: Bahá'ís in Iran, by Leila Chamankhah, in MEI Occasional Paper, 5 (2010). Essay on the causes of distrust and estrangement between Shias and Bahá'ís. The term "ghetto" here refers to ideologically separated communities. (Offsite.) [about]
  93. Atlanta Bahá'í Community and Race Unity, The: 1909-1950, by Mike McMullen, in World Order, 26.4 (1995). History of the Bahá'í­ faith in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, a city whose Bahá'í community dates back almost to the earliest beginnings of the Bahá'ís in the United States. [about]
  94. Atypical international status of the Holy See, The, by Matthew N. Bathon, in Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2001). Political nature of the Vatican; includes discussion of the Bahá'ís and Bahá'í international organization [about]
  95. Australian Women and Religious Change: Margaret Dixson and the First Melbourne Baha'is, by Graham Hassall, in Proceedings of the Association for Bahá'í Studies (1988). Women played an important role in the initial spread and development of the Bahá’í Faith in Australia. In doing so, they struggled to break the bounds that traditionally defined women's place in the life and organization of a religious community. [about]
  96. Australian-New Zealand Bahá'í Connections, The, by David Brown Carr, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). History and relationship of the early Australian and New Zealand Bahá'í communities, the magazine Herald of the South, and some brief biographies. [about]
  97. Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
  98. Autobibliography in the Writings of the Báb: Translation of the Khutba Dhikriyya, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). A discussion of four of the Báb's autobibliographical works (the Kitáb al-Fihrist, al-Kitáb al-`Ulamá, al-Khutba al-Dhikriyya, and al-Khutba fí'l-Jidda) as related both to antecedents in Islamic literature and to the Báb's messianic self-conception. [about]
  99. Autobiography and Silence: The Early Career of Shaykhu'r-Ra'is Qajar, by Juan Cole, in Iran im 19. Jarhundert und die Entstehung der Bahá'í-Religion (1998). Early biography and thought of Abu al-Hasan Mirza Shaykh al-Ra'is, Qajar prince, dissident, Shi`ite jurist, poet and major figure in the Constitutional Revolution in Iran [about]
  100. Ayatollahs and Democracy in Iraq, The, by Juan Cole, in ISIM Paper #7 (2006). Clerical participation within Iraq's emerging democracy. Does not mention the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  101. Azálí-Bahá'í Crisis of September, 1867, The, by Juan Cole, in Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements, and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, Moshe Sharon, ed. (2004). On the history of a fateful weekend during which the Bábí movement in the nineteenth-century Middle East was definitively split into the Bahá'í and Azalí religions. [about]
  102. Bab and Babeeism, The: Part 1, by Robert K. Arbuthnot, in Contemporary Review, Volume XI (1869). Part one of an early, relatively lengthy overview of Bábí theology and history. [about]
  103. Bab and Babeeism, The: Part 2, by Robert K. Arbuthnot, in Contemporary Review, Volume XII (1969). Part two of an early, relatively lengthy overview of Bábí history and theology. [about]
  104. Bab and Babism, by Edward Payson Evans, in Hours at Home, volume 8 (1869). Overview of Bábí history, the dissemination of its teachings, events following the Bab's death, and the Bab's theology as a progressive religion. [about]
  105. Bab and Babism, by Isaac Adams, in Persia by a Persian: Personal experiences, manners, customs, habits, religious and social life in Persia (1900). Includes Anton Haddad's "A Message from Acca," "A Declaration to the Americans," "Selected Precepts of El-Hak," Pilgrim notes from Lua Getsinger, and letters to America from Mrs. Getsinger, Mrs. Kheiralla, and Mrs. Hearst. [about]
  106. Bab and the Babis, The, by Edward Sell, in Essays on Islam (1901). An early account of the Babis and Bahá'ís. [about]
  107. Bab et les Babis, ou Le Soulevement politique et religieux en Perse, de 1845 à 1853, by Aleksandr Kazem-Beg, in Journale Asiatique, volumes 7-8 (1866). French translation, serialized in a journal, of a book first published in Russian on the origins of the Bábí Faith; the Mazandaran, Nayriz, and Zanjan events; the life of the Bab; and religious doctrine. [about]
  108. Bab in the World of Images, The, by Bijan Ma'sumian and Adib Masumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2013). History of the portraits drawn of the Bab, especially that of Aqa Bala Bayg of Shishvan, the only artist who actually met the Bab. [about]
  109. Bab und Babis, by Arminius (Armin) Vambery, in Meine Wanderungen und Erlebnisse in Persien (1867). Lengthy discussion of the Babis, by a Hungarian Jew who later met Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  110. Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
  111. Báb's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God, The, by Todd Lawson, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). A preliminary translation and discussion of the Bab's Risála fi's-Sulúk, one of his earliest extant compositions. It provides a brief discussion of the mystic quest, and sheds light on the Báb's relationship to the Shaykhi movement and to Sayyid Kázim. [about]
  112. Babi and Bahá'í community of Iran, The: A case of 'suspended genocide'?, by Moojan Momen, in Journal of Genocide Research, 7:2 (2005). A description of the four phases of the persecutions that the Babis and Baha’is in Iran have suffered (the Babis, the early Bahá'ís, during the Pahlavi dynasty, and following the 1979 Islamic revolution) and how they fit in with categories of genocide. [about]
  113. Babi Concept of Holy War, The, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 12:2 (1982). An influential and controversial article, one of the first modern academic examinations of Bábí history. Discusses Islamic jihad, Bábí jihad, martyrdom, and political struggles. [about]
  114. Babi Movement, The: A Resource Mobilization Perspective, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Babism from a sociological standpoint, esp. the place of the Babis in their contemporary cultural and economic classes. [about]
  115. Babi Pamphlet, A, by W. A. Rice, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, 53:27 (1902). Review of an unnamed booklet sent to E.G. Browne, a "little manuscript book of 118 small pages, written in the beautiful Persian character," which was "originally composed before Behaullah’s death in 1892." [about]
  116. Bábí Uprising in Zanjan, The, by John Walbridge, in Iranian Studies, 29:3-4 (1996). A study of the Bábí uprising in Zanjan in 1850, examining the social, economic, and political background as well as the motivations of both the Bábís and their opponents.  [about]
  117. Bábí-State Conflict at Shaykh Tabarsi, The, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam, in Iranian Studies, 35:1-3 (2002). On the background and events of the Shaykh Tabarsi conflict; developments, both in the political sphere and within the Bábí community, that led to the outbreak of open warfare in 1848; and objectives of the Bábí participants in the conflict. [about]
  118. Babis, The, by Charles William Heckethorn, in The Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries, Volume 2 (1897). Neutral-to-sympathetic overview of: The Bab, the founder; progress of Babism; Bábí doctrine; recent history of Babism. [about]
  119. Babis, The, by Edward Sell, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, 47:21 (1896). An early 10-page overview of Bábí history and beliefs, published in a monthly journal of missionary information. [about]
  120. Babism, by E. G. Browne, in Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1890). An early academic account of Babi-Bahá'í history and belief. [about]
  121. Babism, by Denison Ross, in Great Religions of the World (1901). Chapter-length overview of Bábí and early Bahá'í history. [about]
  122. Babism: Its Doctrines and Relations to Mission Work, by John H. Shedd, in Missionary Review of the World, 17 (1894). Early overview of Bábí history and teachings, and its relation to Islam and Christianity. [about]
  123. Babism and the Bab, by James T. Bixby, in The New World: A quarterly review of religion, ethics, and theology, 6:24 (1897). Overview of Bábí history, with some discussion of literature and theology. [about]
  124. Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
  125. Bahá'í "Pupil of the Eye" Metaphor, The: Promoting Ideal Race Relations in Jim Crow America, by Christopher Buck, in The Bahá'í Faith and African American History, chapter 1 (2018). On the notable contribution to promoting ideal race relations in Jim Crow America by the Bahá'í Faith which, though small in number, was socially significant in its concerted efforts to foster and advance harmony between the races. [about]
  126. Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America, The: Alain Locke and Robert Abbott, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 17 (2011). W. E. B. Du Bois, Alain L. Locke and Robert S. Abbott, ranked as the 4th, 36th and 41st most influential in African American history, all expressed interest in the Baha’i ethic of world unity, from family to international relations, and social crisis. [about]
  127. Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Finality in Islam, A, by Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Survey of the terms "prophet" and "seal," and a Bahá'í reconciliation of these terms with progressive revelation. [about]
  128. Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Uniqueness and Exclusivity in Christianity, A, by Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:2 (1990). Differing interpretations of scriptural passages about exclusivity have caused conflicts between denominations. A Bahá'í approach, focussing on the Gospels and on progressive revelation, can reconcile these disagreements. [about]
  129. Bahá'í Approaches to Christianity and Islam: Further Thoughts on Developing an Inter-Religious Dialogue, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). The Bahá'í contribution to inter-religious dialogue is based on developing intellectual bridges between religions. The concept of continuity of revelation is a framework by which religions can dialogue about their differences and similarities. [about]
  130. Bahá'í Communities in the West, 1897-1992, by Richard Hollinger, in Community Histories: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 6 (1992). Sociological survey of major trends in the American Bahá'í community from the nineteenth century to the present — a broad framework in which the history of local communities can be understood. [about]
  131. Bahá'í Community and Health Promotion, The: The Message and the Metaphor, by Robert Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). There may be a connection between spiritual development and physical health, which is not often recognized in contemporary medicine. Lifestyle changes which improve health can be promoted by religious principles. [about]
  132. Bahá'í Community as a Learning Organisation, The, by Roy Steiner, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). How a knowledge management system focussed on assisting individuals, communities and institutions could improve their success. Followed by commentaries by Kambiz Maani and Svenja Tams. [about]
  133. Bahá'í Community in Edinburgh, 1946-1950, The, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'ís in the West (2004). Historical context of the rise of the Bahá'í community in Scotland, community development, diffusion of Bahá'í literature, and statistics of Bahá'í membership in Scotland as of 1997. [about]
  134. Bahá'í Community of Ashkhabad, The: Its Social Basis and Importance in Bahá'í History, by Moojan Momen, in Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia, ed. Shirin Akiner (1991). Origin and history of the Bahá'ís in Ishqabad (Ashgabat) in Turkistan, analysis of the social composition of this community, and its importance of in terms of the rest of the Bahá'í world. [about]
  135. Bahá'í Community of Canada, The: A Case Study in the Transplantation of Non-Western Religious Movements to Western Societies, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 (1996). The origins and early life of the Bahá'í community in Canada as a sociological case study in the transplantation of non-Western faiths into Western settings. [about]
  136. Bahá'í Community of Iran, The: Patterns of Exile and Problems of Communication, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini, ed. Asghar Fathi (1991). An examination of the causes and patterns of migrations of Iranian Bahá'ís. [about]
  137. Bahá'í Community of Randwick: A Survey of 75 Years, by Graham Hassall, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, 1:1 (1999). History of the Bahá'í community of Randwick, Australia. [about]
  138. Bahá'í Consultation and Freireian Dialogue in Development: A Comparative Perspective, by Adel Salmanzadeh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The potential Bahá'í contribution to the development process; case study of Bahá’í consultation in development practice with the 'Radio for Development' (Ecuador); conflict between privileging the global market vs. human communities; sustainability. [about]
  139. Bahá'í Contribution to Cosmopolitan International Relations Theory, The, by Nalinie N. Mooten, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Bahá’í concepts of global governance, unity in diversity, and ethical reform as contributions to a cosmopolitan International Relations theory. [about]
  140. Bahá'í Contributions to Interfaith Relations, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 54:2 (2019). A close look at the House's "Letter to the World’s Religious Leaders" as a contribution to interfaith discourse. [about]
  141. Bahá'í Cosmological Symbolism and the Ecofeminist Critique, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). Constituents of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; introduction to the main feminist/environmentalist arguments; eschatological character of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; Bahá'í eschatology provides answers to many feminist and ecological objections. [about]
  142. Bahá'í Covenant, The, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). The continuing importance of the Bahá'í concept of the Covenant and its implications to an understanding of Bahá'í history; misconceptions about the covenant; covenant-breakers; the passing of Shoghi Effendi without writing a will or testament. [about]
  143. Bahá'í Critique of Human Rights, A: State Sovereignty as Smokescreen or Necessary Partner in Securing Human Rights?, by Nazila Ghanea-Hercock, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). The Bahá’í critique of the current international human rights system focuses on the extent and centrality of state sovereignty; the importance of the international protection of human rights by the United Nations; systemic challenges. [about]
  144. Bahá'í Educational Project, The: Towards a Universal System of Education, by Keith Bookwalter (2000). Interpretation of guidance in the Baha' writings to formulate a method of using Bahá'í deepening and training materials that utilize research-based learning, teaching, and curriculum theory, both deductive and inductive, beyond institute-style courses. [about]
  145. Bahá'í Faith 1957-1988, The: A Survey of Contemporary Developments, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in Religion, 19 (1989). A general account of developments in the Bahá'í Faith during these three decades. [about]
  146. Bahá'í Faith and Academic Journals, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). The nature of the major indexes which classify periodical and journal articles by author and subject which are appropriate to Bahá'í studies and what they reveal about the state of the academic study of the Faith. [about]
  147. Baha'i Faith and economics: a review and synthesis, by Bryan Graham, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, volume 13 (2002). Review of the secondary literature on the subject and some issues of methodology. [about]
  148. Bahá'í Faith and Globalization 1900-1912, The, by Robert Stockman, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Abdu’l-Baha’s thinking inspired much of the practice of Baha’i proselytising; overview of the practical activism of the early American Baha’is and the mutual bonds of assistance between the Baha’i communities of North America and Iran. [about]
  149. Bahá'í Faith and Its Relationship to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, The: A Brief History, by Adam Berry, in International Social Science Review, 79:3-4 (2004). Bahá'í history in Iran and America; relationship with Christian missionaries in Iran and Christian converts in America; Jewish responses to the Faith. [about]
  150. Bahá'í Faith and Religious Diversity, by Phillip Smith, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). The Bahá'í principal of unity in diversity as applied to religious pluralism. [about]
  151. Baha'i Faith and the Environment, The, by Richard Landau, in Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change volume 5: Social and Economic Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, ed. Peter Timmerman (2002). Participation of the Bahá'í International Community in UN-sponsored development and environmental initiatives for resolving the difficult challenges before humanity. [about]
  152. Bahá'í Faith and the Market Economy, The, by Farhad Rassekh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:3-4 (2001). Bahá'í teachings relevant to the market system as described in classical economics and the roles of self-interest and morality in economic life; human beings are naturally endowed with a desire to better their lives. [about]
  153. Bahá'í Faith and the Perennial Mystical Quest, The: A Western Perspective, by Julio Savi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). Mysticism is an intrinsic aspect of the Bahá'í Faith and mystical experience as formulated by William Ralph Inge and as expounded in the Bahá'í writings, emphasizing its practical and logical aspects; criticisms of mysticism; a Bahá'í mystical path. [about]
  154. Bahá'í Faith and the Singapore Women's Movement, The: Challenges for the Next Millennium, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). On the relationship between religion and the fight for women's rights after the founding of the Singapore Council of Women; the interplay between gender, religion and the women's movement; challenges for the next millennium with regards to equality. [about]
  155. Bahá'í Faith and Traditional Societies, The: Exploring Universes of Discourse, by Moojan Momen, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). How misunderstandings can arise between pioneers and the cultures they've moved to; traditional vs. modern ways of communication, and the dynamics of conversion. [about]
  156. Baha'í Faith and Wicca, The: A Comparison of Relevance in Two Emerging Religions, by Lil Osborn, in Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies, 11:1 (2009). On the growth of the Baha’i Faith and Wicca in Britain, compared through the lens of the "Theory of Relevance" as the driving force in their further development. [about]
  157. Bahá'í Faith in Australia: 75 Years Remembered, by Graham Hassall, in Herald of the South (1995). An overview of the development of the Bahá'í Faith in Australia from its origins up to the mid-1990s; House of Worship in Sydney; the journal Herald of the South; Clara and Hyde Dunn and other early believers. [about]
  158. Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1947-1963, by Graham Hassall, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Major episodes in the evolution of the Australian Bahá'í community during the years 1947-1963, noting the way in which religious communities can transform over time; the temple in Sydney; the 10-year world crusade; aboriginal Bahá'ís. [about]
  159. Bahá'í Faith in England and Germany, 1900-1913, by Robert Stockman, in World Order (1996). Historical overview of the early years of the Faith in the British Isles and Germany. [about]
  160. Baha'i Faith in Europe, The, by Seena Fazel (2020). Overview of the history of the Faith in Europe; its beginnings in Paris, London, and Stuttgart; Abdu'l-Bahá's visits; notable European Bahá'ís; themes of European community life; membership statistics. [about]
  161. Bahá'í Faith in Kansas 1897-1947, The, by Duane L. Herrmann, in Community Histories: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 6 (1992). An introduction to the first half century of the Kansas Bahá'í community, with unique insight into their patterns of growth and inactivity. [about]
  162. Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). Bábí and early Bahá'í links to the Arab world and the Arabic language; the identity of the Faith is a fusion of Persian and Arab origins. [about]
  163. Bahá'í Faith in the Asia Pacific: Issues and Prospects, by Graham Hassall, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). The development of the diverse Bahá'í Communities in the Pacific Islands since the launching of the World Crusade (1953-63); patterns of expansion; the changing role of the pioneer. [about]
  164. Bahá'í Faith in the West, The: A Survey, by Peter Smith, in Bahá'ís in the West (2004). General account of the development and expansion of the Faith in Europe and North America 1894-1994, including distribution and social composition of contemporary communities. Includes Foreword to the volume. [about]
  165. Baha'i Faith, The, by Marcus Bach, in They Have Found a Faith, Chapter 7 (1946). An outsider's view of the Bahá'í community from a "faith-based" perspective. [about]
  166. Bahá'í Faith, The: Sect or Religion?, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies, volume 16 (1988). Lengthy study defining the distinguishing features of the Bahá'í Faith as contrasted with other contemporary religious movements. [about]
  167. Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings, The by William Miller: "Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith", by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í Studies, 4 (1978). Lengthy review of Miller's book, and a broad discussion of anti-Bahá'í polemic and historiography. [about]
  168. Bahá'í Fundamentalism and the Academic Study of the Babi Movement, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 16:1 (1986). A response to Afnan and Hatcher's "Western Islamic Scholarship and Bahá'í Origins," on the issues of faith-based approaches to religious history and textual criticism. [about]
  169. Bahá'í Fundamentals for Bioethics, by Leila R. Milani and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:2 (1998). The science of the soul; Bahá’í scriptural understanding of suffering, theodicy, and the purpose of creation; definitions of life and death, as well as the purpose of human life; formulating a Bahá’í approach to bioethical dilemmas. [about]
  170. Bahá'í Guidelines to Healing and the Role of Homoeopathy, by Mozhdeh Foo, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). Principles of the homeopathic system of medicine, and comparison of them with the fundamentals of health and healing outlined in writings of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  171. Bahá'í Health Initiatives in Iran: A preliminary survey, by Seena Fazel and Minou Foadi, in The Bahá'ís of Iran: Socio-historical Studies, ed. Dominic Parviz Brookshaw & Seena B. Fazel (2008). Bahá'í-related initiatives in Iran in the 19th-20th centuries: Bahá'ís made important contributions to public health such as introducing showers in public baths, school vaccinations, women's health, and privately-financed clinics open to all Iranians. [about]
  172. Bahá'í History in the Formative Age: The World Crusade 1953-1963, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:4 (1995). The major features of the Bahá'í 'World Crusade' 1953-1963; thoughts about the contemporary practice of historical Bahá'í scholarship; the guardianship and evolution of the Universal House of Justice; United Nations and the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  173. Bahá'í House of Worship, The: Localization and Universal Form, by Graham Hassall, in Handbook of New Religions and Cultural Production, Carole M. Cusack & Alex Norman, ed. (2012). On the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Bahá'í thought and practice; interplay between the universal specifications for this architectural form and its enculturation in regional settings: European, African, Oceanic, Asian, and American. [about]
  174. Bahá'í Influence on the Reform Movements of the Islamic World in the 1860s and 1870s, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 2:2 (1983). Bahá'í influences on the Middle Eastern reform movement in the 1860s and 1870s. [about]
  175. Bahá'í Influences on Mirza 'Abdu'llah, Qajar Court Musician and Master of the Radíf, by Peggy Caton, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 2 (1984). The mystical milieu of musicianship and the Bahá'í Faith's approval of music (in contradistinction to the legalistic Islam of the ayatu'llahs, which forbade it) made the Faith appealing to Abdu'llah, one of the great compilers of the Persian repertoire. [about]
  176. Bahá'í Journal of the United Kingdom (1997). Eight years of news and essays from the Journal of the Bahá'í Community of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. [about]
  177. Baha'i Meets Globalisation: A New Synergy?, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Following Weber's analysis of the synergy between Protestantism and the rationalisation of social control in modern societies, this paper draws attention to the potential "fit" between the dynamics of globalisation and the Baha’i Faith. [about]
  178. Baha'i Minority and Nationalism in Contemporary Iran, by Juan Cole, in Nationalism and minority identities in Islamic societies, ed. Maya Shatzmiller (2005). While Bahá'ís in Persia would seem to have been in a place to benefit from the rise of modern Iranian nationalism, the Faith hasn't been widely adopted, partly due to the recent emergence of the theocracy. [about]
  179. Bahá'í Movement, with Some Recollections of Meetings with Abdul Baha, The, by Maude M. Holbach, in The Nineteenth Century and After, 77 (1915). Overview of Bábí and Bahá'í history, and an account of a multi-day visit with Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  180. Bahá'í News: Complete issues, in Bahá'í News (1924). Link to offsite documents. [about]
  181. Bahá'í News Publications Seek to Elevate Thought, Inspire Action, by Bahá'í World News Service, in Bahá'í World (2018). Brief overview of the histories of various Bahá'í journals: Star of the West, Khurshid-i khavar, Sonne der Wahrheit, Wirklichkeit, The Dawn, Herald of the South, The Bahá'í World, World Order, and Bahá’í World News Service. [about]
  182. Bahá'í Ontology, Part One: An Initial Reconnaissance, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). An initial survey and explication of the ontology implicit in the Bahá'í Writings, particularly regarding the nature of human existence; the philosophy of Nietzsche and some of his modern successors. [about]
  183. Bahá'í Ontology, Part Two: Further Explorations, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). A further exploration of Bahá'í ontology: becoming and change; substance, soul, and identity; the nature of being and nothingness; time; the one and the many; the nature of things; what makes something real; social ontology; Buddhism and Hegel [about]
  184. Bahá'í Perspective on the Origin of Matter, A, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The origin of matter is spiritual. Science sees that, at its most fundamental level, reality is not particular materials or structures, but probabilities and transformation. The four elements, three-fold structure of being, and balance are also examined. [about]
  185. Bahá'í Philosophy of Human Nature, The, by Ian Kluge, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:1-2 (2017). How the essential reality of the individual — the human soul and its powers of rational thought, willpower, memory, and reflection — translates these capacities into physical action through the intermediary of the brain. [about]
  186. Bahá'í Physicians: Emerging Roles and Responsibilities, by Hoda Mahmoudi and Gloria Teckie, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 20:1-4 (2010). The role of a Bahá'í doctor; the relationship between medical intervention and health of the mind, soul, as well as body; the patient's role in maintaining their own health; a Bahá'í approach to health-care delivery. [about]
  187. Bahá'í Pilgrimage to Israel, by Gandhimohan Viswanathan, in Pilgrims and Travelers to the Holy Land (1996). A short scholarly article accompanied by numerous photographs of sacred Bahá'í sites in the Holy Land. [about]
  188. Baha'i Pontiff in the Making, A, by A. E. Suthers, in Moslem World, 25 (1935). A polemical article, published in what was originally a missionary-oriented journal, which is useful in that includes a fairly extended glimpse of Shoghi Effendi through the eyes of a non-Bahá'í contemporary observer. [about]
  189. Bahá'í Prayers for Good Governance, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 56:4 (2021). Bahá’u’lláh encouraged Bahá’ís to pray for their rulers. This essay presents a newly authorized translation of "A Prayer for the confirmation of the American Government," and a provisional translation of a prayer of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá for the Ottoman Caliphate. [about]
  190. 'Bahá'í Question' in Iran: Influence of International Law on 'Islamic Law', by Christopher Buck, in Menschenrechte in der Islamischen Republik Iran: Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran (2021). On the "Baha’i question," a secret Iranian government document from 1991 which sets out oppressive policies to persecute or imprison Bahá'ís, and the history of the legal and practical implementation of such policies. [about]
  191. Bahá'í Religious Faith and Tradition in Bangladesh, by Muhammad Jahangir Alam, in Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 8:1 (2011). History of the Faith in eastern Bengal and a sketch of current distribution, organization, and activities of Bahá'ís in Bangladesh. [about]
  192. Bahá'í Response to Racial Injustice and Pursuit of Racial Unity, The: Part 1 (1912-1996), by Richard Thomas, in Bahá'í World (2021). The American Bahá’í community’s historical efforts to address racial injustice which has afflicted the United States since its founding. [about]
  193. Bahá'í Review: Should the 'red flag' law be repealed?, by Barney Leith, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Argument that the current provisions for review may be anachronistic and that the benefits of deregulation might outweigh possible disadvantages. Includes responses by Roxanne Lalonde and Sepideh Taheri. [about]
  194. Baha'i Sacred Texts, by Moojan Momen (2019). The Baha’i Faith is a scriptural religion. Momen explains the Baha’i beliefs about sacred texts and prophets, the transmission and distribution of the scripture and its role in the community. (Link to document, offsite.) [about]
  195. Bahá'í Scholarship: An examination using citation analysis, by Seena Fazel and John Danesh, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Examines references of articles in major Bahá'í studies journals published during 1978-83 and 1988-93 to study trends in Bahá'í scholarship. [about]
  196. Baha'i Studies in Iran: A Preliminary Survey, by Bijan Ma'sumian and Adib Masumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). Overview of the cultivation and evolution of religious education in the Baha’i Faith in Iran in the 19th and 20th centuries. [about]
  197. Bahá'í Tradition, The: The Return of Joseph and the Peaceable Imagination, by Todd Lawson, in Fighting Words: Religion, Violence, and the Interpretation of Sacred Texts, ed. John Renard (2012). Overview of the status of violence in the Bahá'í tradition, and the historical/social conditions in which these doctrines were articulated. [about]
  198. Bahá'í Understanding of Reincarnation in Relation to the World's Faiths, A, by Sateh Bayat and Vafa Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). Concepts of reincarnation in Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; the Bahá'í religion's rejection of the idea of reincarnation; its model of a spiritual progress which continues after death. [about]
  199. Bahá'í Universalism and Native Prophets, by Christopher Buck, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Explores the possibility of including other great religious figures in the Bahá'í category of "Manifestations of God" using the Iroquois prophet Deganawida as an example. [about]
  200. Bahá'í View of the Bible, A, by Colin Dibdin, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). From a Bahá'í viewpoint, the Bible is a reliable source of divine guidance and salvation, but is not necessarily historically accurate, nor can the words of its writers, although inspired, be strictly defined as 'The Word of God'; biblical scholarship. [about]
  201. Bahá'í Village Granary, The: Spiritual Underpinnings and Applications to North America, by Peter Calkins and Benoit Girard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). A village granary helps lay the systemic foundations of Bahá’u’lláh’s spiritualized new world economic order for both rural and urban society, the capstone of God’s progressive revelation of rural institutions for the sustainable use of natural resources. [about]
  202. Bahá'í World Faith: Redefinition of Religion, by James J. Keene, in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 6:2 (1967). Bahá'ís consistently differ from Jews and Christians in the structure of their religious behavior and its relation to personality. Only the Bahá'ís evidenced a "fully balanced" religious activity. [about]
  203. Bahá'í Worldview on Unity of Religions: Progressive Revelation, The: Principles and Insights from the History of Science, by Jena Khadem Khodadad, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Examination of the Bahá’í belief in the unity of religions and the doctrine of "progressive revelation" through the lens of Thomas Kuhn's concept of scientific revolutions. [about]
  204. Bahá'í Writings and Kant's "Perpetual Peace", The, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Kant's Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795) outlined practical steps necessary to end war through the establishment of a "league of peace" and a union of nations. This essay traces similarities between Kant's and Bahá'í proposals. [about]
  205. Bahá'í Writings and the Buddhist Doctrine of Emptiness, The: An Initial Survey, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). Agreements and convergence of the Buddhist concept of sunyata with the Bahá'í Writings. [about]
  206. Bahá'í Writings, The: A Meta-ethical Excursion, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Philosophical examination of the Writings' ethical teachings, how they relate to the major ethical systems proposed in the past, and how they deal with some of the difficulties inherent in past systems. [about]
  207. Bahá'í Youth and Sexuality: A Personal/Professional View, by Sharon Kennedy and Andrew Kennedy, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:1 (1988). The role of Bahá’í youth with respect to prevailing attitudes towards sexuality found in Western society, emphasizing the process of spiritual growth and the principle of chastity; a number of practical suggestions are made. [about]
  208. Bahá'í-Christian Dialogue: Some Key Issues Considered, by Francis Beckwith, in Christian Research Journal (1989). An antagonistic and polemical overview of the Bahá'í Faith by a Christian. [about]
  209. Bahá'í: A Way of Life for Millions, by Lerone Bennett Jr., in Ebony Magazine (1965). Article reprinted from 1965 Ebony Magazine article and made into pamphlet for mass distribution. [about]
  210. Baha'is and the Constitutional Revolution, The: The Case of Sari, Mazandaran, 1906-1913, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 41:3 (2008). Accounts of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran have tended to ignore the role of the Baha’is. They educated people about the reforms envisaged and about the modern world, for which they were persecuted. [about]
  211. Bahá'ís in Iran, The: Twenty Years of Repression, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Social Research, 67:2 (2000). Overview of the modern persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran. [about]
  212. Baha'is in Post-revolution Iran: Perspectives of the Ulema, by Ankita Sanyal, in Contemporary Review of the Middle East, 6:1 (2019). Historical background of the ulema/monarchy equation; the Ayatollahs’ take on the Baha’is after 1979, and dissident views of the Bahá'ís. [about]
  213. Bahá'ís of Baltimore, 1898-1990, The, by Deborah Clark, in Community Histories: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 6 (1992). The story of the Bahá'ís in the Baltimore area, who also hosted Abdul-Baha during his travels in America. [about]
  214. Bahá'ís of the Caucasus, The, by Bayram Balci and Azer Jafarov, in Caucaz Europe News (2007). Three short articles: "Who are the Baha’is of the Caucasus?," "From Russian Tolerance to Soviet Repression," and "An Independent Azerbaijan." [about]
  215. Bahá'ís of the United States, The, by Robert Stockman, in Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, Volume 4 (2006). Overview of the history and teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, with reflections on it as a "New Religious Movement." Two versions of an article, one draft (undated) and one published. [about]
  216. Bahá'ís, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield, in The Sufi Quarterly, 3 (1928). A "comprehensive account of the inspiration and ideals upon which Baha’ism is built up" — overview of the history and teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  217. Bahá'ísm, by Alban G. Widgery, in Living Religions and Modern Thought (1936). Chapter-length overview of Bahá'í theology. [about]
  218. Bahá'ísm: A Study of a Contemporary Movement, by Albert Ross Vail, in The Harvard Theological Review, 7 (1914). Scholarly analysis of the influence of the Bahá'í Faith and the psychology of its followers. [about]
  219. Bahá'ísm: An Anti-Christian System, by Samuel Graham Wilson, in Bibliotheca Sacra, 72:285 (1915). A Christian missionary's perspective on the Bahá'í Faith's claim to supersede Christianity. [about]
  220. Bahá'ísm: Some Uncertainties about its Role as a Globalizing Religion, by Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í and Globalisation, ed. Margit Warburg (2005). On Bahá'í self-understanding as the religion to unite all faiths in the culmination of globalisation, vs. the challenges which secular values present to a religion that, rooted in Islamic thinking, aims to fuse the spheres of religion and society. [about]
  221. Bahá'u'lláh and Liberation Theology, by Juan Cole, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). The idea of liberation and equality is central to Bahá'í theology; the poor in the 19th century Middle East; Bahá'u'lláh and the poor; Tablet to the Kings on wealth and peace; laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Huququ'lláh; state social welfare. [about]
  222. Bahá'u'lláh and the God of Avicenna, by Joshua Hall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:3 (2022). Comparison of the teachings of Bahá’u’lláh on the nature of God with the philosophy of Avicenna; this helps one understand the philosophical content and significance, and rational rigor, of Bahá’u’lláh’s own statements on God’s existence and creative act. [about]
  223. Bahá'u'lláh and the Naqshbandi Sufis in Iraq, 1854-1856, by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 2 (1984). The interplay of Bábí themes of messianism and the Sufi mystical emphasis on internal spirituality; analysis of an early poem by Bahá'u'lláh which hints that by the 1850s he began to see his mission of reform to carry out in the Bábí community. [about]
  224. Baha'u'llah as 'World Reformer', by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:4 (1991). This article places Bahá'u'lláh in the context of Islamic reform by comparing him to several contemporary Iranian reformers. Bahá'u'lláh prosecuted his proposed reforms in three stages: (1) Bábí reform; (2) Persian reform; and (3) world reform. [about]
  225. Bahá'u'lláh as fulfilment of the theophanic promise in the Sermons of Imam 'Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib: Translation of al Tutunjiyya, Iftikhár and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat, by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Translations of Tutunjiyya "Sermon of the Gulf," Iftikhár "Sermon of Iftikhár," and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat "Sermon of Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat." [about]
  226. Baha'u'llah as Zoroastrian saviour, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Examines the Bahá'í view of Zoroastrianism to understand tensions between scholarship and "messiahship" and topics such as proof texts and prophecy. [about]
  227. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Examines the question: What philosophical viewpoints are necessary to understand what Bahá’u’lláh calls "Thy transcendent unity," i.e., the concept of unity and oneness, which are ubiquitous in the Bahá’í Writings? [about]
  228. Bahá'u'lláh's "Ode of the Dove": A Provisional Translation, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). A lengthy dialogue between Bahá'u'lláh (as persona/narrator) and the Huriyyih — the Maid of Heaven (a personification of “the Most Great Spirit”). [about]
  229. Bahá'u'lláh's 'Long Healing Prayer' ("Lawḥ-i-Anta'l-Káfí") in Light of a Metaphysics of Unity, by Daniel Azim Pschaida, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:3 (2022). On the originality and deep coherence of this prayer as expressed by its rhyme, alliterations, and structures organized around the number 19; the prayer is an invitation to meditate on God’s names, and see reality in a metaphysics of wholeness and unity. [about]
  230. Bahá'u'lláh's Bishárát (Glad-Tidings): A Proclamation to Scholars and Statesmen, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16 (2010). Historical and textual study of the one of the major writings of Bahá'u'lláh, and new theories as to its provenance and purpose; it may have been revealed for E. G. Browne. [about]
  231. Baha'u'llah's First Tablet to Napoleon III: A Research Note, by Ismael Velasco, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Comparison of Shoghi Effendi's English translation and Ismael Velasco's English translation of Dreyfus French version. [about]
  232. Bahá'u'lláh's Four Tablets to Maryam, by Gloria Yazdani, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Translations of Lawh-i-Maryam "Tablet for Cousin Maryam," Maryama Isiy-i-Jan "Tablet for Maryam on Sorrow and Love," Hurufat-i-‘Ali’in "Exalted Letters," and Ziyárat-Námih-i-Maryam "Tablet of Visitation for Maryam." [about]
  233. Bahá'u'lláh's Influence on the New York School of Painting: The "Unapprehended Inspiration" of Newman and Rothko, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). The paintings of New Yorkers Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko may best be understood as a powerful first evidence of what Bahá’u’lláh called “the rising Orb of Divine Revelation, from behind the veil of concealment.” [about]
  234. Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas: Tablet of the Right of the People, Provisional Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). A tablet on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
  235. Bahá'u'lláh's Life and Mission: "This is the One Who Hath Glorified the Son", by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Ways in which Bahá’u’lláh glorifies Jesus Christ and His Cause: He quotes, explains, and defends Christian scripture; supplements Christ’s teachings for the needs of a fast-evolving society; and speaks of Christ as an existing spiritual reality. [about]
  236. Baha'u'llah's Paradise of Justice: Commentary and Translation, by Christopher Buck and Adib Masumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). The tablet Riḍvānu’l-‘Adl, "Paradise of Justice," shows how the concept of justice — which encompasses both faith and action — is the essence of the Baha’i concept of salvation, both individual and societal. [about]
  237. Bahá'u'lláh's Persian Poems Written before 1863, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the mystical early writings of Bahá'u'lláh, 1852-1863. Includes extensive bibliography, and a brief summary of each of the major works from this period. [about]
  238. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
  239. Baha'u'llah's Seclusion in Kurdistan, by Bijan Ma'sumian, in Deepen, 1:1 (1993). Reconstruction of parts of this mostly undocumented period in Bahá'u'lláh's life. [about]
  240. Bahá'u'lláh's Seven Valleys and Developmental Psychology: Toward a Conception of Spiritual Development, by Andrew R. Hatala, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21:1-4 (2011). Through the lens of the Seven Valleys, this paper creates a dialogue between theories of developmental psychology and Bahá’í philosophical perspectives, explores the evolution of the "self," and examines spiritual striving in human phylogeny and ontogeny. [about]
  241. Bahá'u'lláh's Symbolic Use of the Veiled Ḥúríyyih, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). Analyzing some of the meanings behind the appearance of the Veiled Maiden, as alluded to by Bahá'u'lláh in His letters. [about]
  242. Baha'u'llah's Unity Paradigm: A Contribution to Interfaith Dialogue on a Global Ethic?, by Udo Schaefer, in Dialogue and Universalism, 6:11-12 (1996). The mystic unity of religions and the concept of progressive revelation. [about]
  243. Bahai Movement, The: A paper read by Shoghi Effendi at Oxford, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Dawn, 1:1-8 (1923). Text of an address given to the Oxford University Asiatic Society, February 1921, before the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and before Shoghi Effendi was appointed the "Guardian." [about]
  244. Bahaism and Ecumenism in the Context of Recent Sociocultural Trends , by Leyla Melikova, in The Caucasus & Globalization, 2:3 (2008). Some of the current sociocultural specifics of two religious phenomena — the Bahá'í Faith and ecumenism — and their place in the republic’s public and religious life. [about]
  245. Bahaism in Azerbaijan, by Leyla Melikova, in The Caucasus & Globalization, 1:5 (2007). History of the Bahá'í Faith in northern Azerbaijan, and the Faith's present and future in the context of the relations between the state and society in Azerbaijan. [about]
  246. Bahá'í Community of Canada, The, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). [about]
  247. Bahá'í Consultation and the Transformation of Society, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Overview of consultation in the Bahá'í Faith, from its introduction in the Aqdas and first implementation in Iran in the 1870s, and ways in which successive Bahá'í leaders promoted it in the community and for transformation of society. [about]
  248. Bahá'í Faith and Peace Psychology, The: The Potential for Science and Religion to Collaborate, by Rhett Diessner, in Peace Psychology Bulletin, 3:3 (1994). On the potential for Bahá’í peace initiatives, coupled with empirical peace psychology approaches, regarding: ethnicity and peace, feminism and peace, and peace and education. [about]
  249. Bahá'í Faith Seen through the Eyes of Major Encyclopedias, The, by Seena Fazel, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:3 (1992). Overview of some themes and organization/structure common to articles about Bahá'í topics published in encyclopedias; includes a list of references to the Bahá’í Faith in major encyclopedias (as of 1992). [about]
  250. Bahá'í Teachings and the Principle of Separation between Religion and State, by Mikhail Sergeev, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). Historical background of the concept of separation of church and state, some contemporary views within and without the Bahá'í community, and the nature of secular democracy. [about]
  251. Bahá'u'lláh and the Luminous Mind: Bahá'í Gloss on a Buddhist Puzzle, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Non-duality is of central importance to Buddhist thought and experience; on monism and non-dualism as reflected in Asian religious expressions, including Hinduism's Advaita Vedanta. [about]
  252. Balance hath been Appointed, The: Some Thoughts on the Publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Significances of the Aqdas and the possible impact of its publication (1992) upon its Western audience. [about]
  253. Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Baron V. R. Rosen's unpublished materials relating to Bábí and Bahá'í studies, including his correspondence with A. G. Tumanski and E. G. Browne, and official reports of Russian diplomats. [about]
  254. Bábí-State Conflict at Shaykh Tabarsí, The, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:1-2 (2004). Analysis of first of four major clashes between the Bábís and the Qájár state from 1848-1853. The Bábís were not intent on revolt; factors include the increased public hostility toward the Bábís, their understanding of holy war, and political instability. [about]
  255. Bábís of Persia, The: I. Sketch of Their History, and Personal Experiences amongst Them, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:3 (1889). Results of Browne's investigations into the doctrines, history, and circumstances of this "most remarkable" religious phenomenon, and outline of things yet to be studied. [about]
  256. Bábís of Persia, The: II. Their Literature and Doctrines, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:4 (1889). Overview of Bábí literature and doctrine. [about]
  257. Beauty of the Human Psyche, The: The Patterns of the Virtues, by Rhett Diessner, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). Insights from science and the Bahá'í Writings combine to show how the human soul is a shining of divine attributes reflected into our mind, where they manifest as virtuous thoughts and spiritual emotions. [about]
  258. Because Baha'u'llah said so: Dealing with a non-starter in moral reasoning, by Arash Abizadeh, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Discusses a popular but misleading versus more philosophically responsible approaches to revelation. [about]
  259. Becoming Hospitable and Uplifting Holding Environments for Humanity's Griefs: Depression and the Bahá'í Community, by Elena Mustakova, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:4 (2017). What depression and anxiety-related conditions can teach us about creating healing spiritual communities; the Bahá'í message can help encourage us toward healing and uplifting communities, to embrace humanity’s griefs and point the way forward. [about]
  260. Bedrock of Bahá'í Belief, The: The Doctrine of Progressive Revelation, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). The importance of doctrine and systematic theology in understanding the Baha' Faith, and the process of "doctrinalization" in Bahá'í history. [about]
  261. Begin with the Village: The Bahá'í Approach to Rural Development, by Paul Hanley, in Bahá'í World (2019). About the focus on rural areas, the role of farmers and villages in achieving sustainable development, establishing community institutions, social action and public discourse. [about]
  262. beginning that hath no beginning, The: Bahá'í Cosmogony, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). The dimensions of myth in the Bahá'í Faith focussing on the religion's narratives of creation, religious history, and Administrative Order. [about]
  263. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65:1 (1997). Bahá'u'lláh's lessons from the Judeo-Christian experience for founding a new, post-Islamic religion; invoking Christ to illuminate contemporary situations within Babi-Bahá'í history; implications for his relations with Middle Eastern Christians. [about]
  264. Being and Becoming: The ANISA Theory of Development, by Michael F. Kalinowski and Daniel C. Jordan, in World Order, 7:4 (1973). To provide children with experience and knowledge, enabling them to direct their own spiritual evolution, we need a theory explaining the nature of "becoming" and development. ANISA is a blueprint for a comprehensive educational system. [about]
  265. Between Karbalá' and Tabríz: Contested Martyrdom Narratives, by Moojan Momen, in Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East, ed. Sasha Dehghani and Silvia Horsch (2014). On two models of martyrdom in the time after the Islamic Revolution in Iran, that of the ruling elite and that of the Bahá'is. The Bahá'í narrative is closer to the traditional Shiite, whereas modern Shiism is designed to foster the revolutionary spirit. [about]
  266. Beyond Red Power: The Alternative Activism of Dorothy Maquabeak Francis, by Chelsea Horton, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). Aboriginal activism of the 1960s-1970s, which promoted native spirituality and culture, fostered cross-cultural understanding, but now "Red Power" must encompass both the grassroots and the spiritual realms. [about]
  267. Beyond the "Seal of the Prophets": Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude, by Christopher Buck, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). The Bábí background of the Iqán, the nature of interpretation and exegesis, and the place of Muhammad. [about]
  268. Beyond Welfare: A Preliminary Bahá'í Normative Framework for Economic Rights and Responsibilities, by Vargha Taefi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:1-2 (2022). The conceptual underpinnings of a Bahá’í approach to economic growth and disparity, mapped onto an applied framework of economic rights and responsibilities, give rise to economic justice and individual and institutional rights and responsibilities. [about]
  269. Biblical References in Tablets of the Divine Plan, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Knowledge of the Bible is now at an all-time low; a study of the contexts of four biblical references found in Tablets of the Divine Plan, to demonstrate the value that biblical literacy brings to the study and implementation of these Tablets. [about]
  270. Birth of a Monotheistic Religion in Modernity, The: On Jihad and Martyrdom in the Baha'i Faith, by Sasha Dehghani, in Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East, ed. Sasha Dehghani and Silvia Horsch (2014). The Bahá'í Faith responds to major questions of modernity such as the claims of science, world peace, and women's rights. Elements of continuity between early Christianity and mystical Islam can be found in the abolishment of military jihad. [about]
  271. Birth of the Human Being, The: Beyond Religious Traditionalism and Materialist Modernity, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21:1-4 (2011). We have arrived at a turning point in human evolution: the moment of the birth of the human being. This paper examines the development of this idea in the Writings of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and its opposite concept, dehumanization. [about]
  272. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit: Chapter 31 of Some Answered Questions, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). An examination of covenant-breaking in the Bahá’í Faith in terms of the Biblical reference to blasphemy against the Holy Spirit. [about]
  273. Body, Mind, Soul and Spirit, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The Bahá'í view of human nature involves an interaction between spirit, soul and body — these three elements exist both in the Semitic religions and in the Far Eastern ones; Western dualist and Eastern monist traditions are in fact all tripartite. [about]
  274. Bonds that Sustain: Bahá'í Community-Building Efforts Through the Lens of Disaster Response, by Bani Dugal, in Bahá'í World (2019). On disaster response in the Bahá'í community, systems of human resource development, community-building capacity, coordination, communication, collective action, and spiritual needs. [about]
  275. Book of Revelation Revealed in Glory, The: A Summary of Glorious Revelation, by William Ridgers, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Bahá'í interpretation of St. John's Book of Revelation. [about]
  276. Bounded Religious Communities' Management of the Challenge of New Media: Bahá'í Negotiation with the Internet, by Heidi A. Campbell and Drake Fulton, in Social Media and Religious Change, ed. Marie Gillespie et al. (2012). An outsiders' perspective of the Bahá'í approach to fluid, open networks in the face of its bounded social structure and its system of hierarchical gatekeepers. Includes overview of the Bahá'í Internet Agency. [about]
  277. Brief Account of the Bahá'í Movement, A, by Ethel J. Rosenberg (1911). An early overview of the Bahá'í Faith and its teachings, with compilation of quotations, published as a 28-page booklet. [about]
  278. Brief Discussion of the Primal Will in the Bahá'í Writings, by Keven Brown, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Neoplatonic concepts in Bahá'í metaphysics. [about]
  279. Bringing Rights Home: Human Rights and the Institution of the Family, by Chichi Layor, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). The role of family rights in contemporary human rights discourse, Bahá’í principles relating to family rights, and relevant provisions in present-day human rights legal instruments. [about]
  280. Brothers and Sisters: Buddhism in the Family of Chinese Religion, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). The endurance of Confucianism for 2,000 years is partly because Buddhism and Taoism were content to play a subordinate role and not infringe upon the "Chinese Great Tradition"; implications of Buddhism's role in relation to new religions in China. [about]
  281. Brutal Slashing to Death of Dr Berjis, The, by Nasser Mohajer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 17:1 (2011). English translation of an article in Persian about persecutions during the Pahlavi regime, and the death of a Bahá'í doctor in 1950. [about]
  282. Buda: Profeta de Dios, by Donald Witzel, in La Luz Brilla en Cualquier Lampara, 1 (1957). Una de las primeras contribuciones bahá'ís al estudio del Budismo. [about]
  283. Buddhism and the Bahá'í Writings: An Ontological Rapprochement, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). The Bahá'í Faith and Buddhism are two different and apparently incompatible religions, but they share fundamental ontological principles. Thus, their analyses of reality and what it means 'to be' are largely compatible. [about]
  284. Building Creative Communities: Approaching the arts as social & economic development through professionalizing, training, and networking internationally, by Robin M. Chandler, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the Global Arts Training Institute, a model for building professionalism in the arts which can be implemented in Bahá’í communities and incorporated into teaching plans to develop the next generation of artists. [about]
  285. Building Intercultural Community: Insights from Indigenous Bahá'í History, by Chelsea Horton, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). Bridging Bahá'í communities with Indigenous populations in Canada and the United States was not easy, and was especially fraught for native believers, who also confronted tensions of intercultural understanding and sometimes outright racism. [about]
  286. Bushido (Chivalry) and the Traditional Japanese Moral Education, by Nozomu Sonda, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Japanese virtues explained by Nitobe in 1900 in comparison with the Bahá'í perspective on moral education. [about]
  287. Bushires' British Residency Records (1837-50): The Appearance of Babism in Persia, by Syed Shakeel Ahmed, in Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 43:4 (1995). Records from Mirza 'Ali Akbar, a British agent in Shiraz, from 1837, 1839, and 1850, with possible early mentions of the Báb. [about]
  288. "By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). A translation and discussion of an Ottoman-Turkish Tablet by `Abdu'l-Bahá: his commentary on the Quaranic Sura of the Fig (#95).  [about]
  289. Call into Being: Introduction to a Bahá'í Existentialism, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). An existential approach to the Writings and their Aristotelian substratum provides a bridge between an abstract understanding and the actual exigencies of daily life. [about]
  290. Calligraphy of Mishkin-Qalam, The, by Julie Badiee and Heshmatollah Badiee, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:4 (1991). The life and work of a one-time court artist for Nasiri'd-Din Shah, who was present for the nascent years of the Baha’i revelation and moved to Edirne to be near to Baha'u'lláh; examples of Islamic calligraphic traditions and his own compositions. [about]
  291. Canadian Bahá'ís 1938-2000, The: Construction of Oneness in Personal and Collective Identity, by Lynn Echevarria-Howe, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On how globalization includes greater consciousness of the whole world, and a sociological perspective on how this consciousness has been nurtured within the Canadian Bahá'í community. [about]
  292. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
  293. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
  294. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í exegesis of apocalyptic symbolism, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Preliminary consideration of selected Bábí-Bahá'í doctrines expository of apocalyptic symbolism associated with major Abrahamic religious prophecies. [about]
  295. Celestial Fire: Bahá'u'lláh as the Messianic Theophany of the Divine Fire in Zoroastrianism, by Farshid Kazemi, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Heat is used as a symbol of the dynamic nature of motion and existence, and in a tablet to the Zoroastrians, Bahá'u'lláh says that fire is a symbol of the Primal Will personified in the Manifestations. This paper explores such symbolism in the Gathas. [about]
  296. Centering the "Pupil of the Eye": Blackness, Modernity, and the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Derik Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:1-2 (2019). The "pupil of the eye" metaphor is a deeply consequential, distinguishing feature of the transformative social and spiritual system laid out in Bahá’u’lláh's Revelation. [about]
  297. Central Figures of the Baha'i Faith , by Moojan Momen (2019). Momen explores the life of the founder of the Baha’i Faith, as well as the lives of his forerunner and successor. He delves into the key events concerning their beliefs and teachings and reflects on their legacy. (Link to document, offsite.) [about]
  298. Challenge of Change for the Chinese in Southeast Asia, The, by Yin Hong Shuen, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Chinese Bahá'ís in some Asian countries are a microcosm of Chinese people in this region. An email survey asked what attracts Southeast Asians to the Faith, difficulties they face, and how adopting a world religion helps guide their future challenges. [about]
  299. Challenge of the Bahá'í Faith: A Non-Bahá'í Assessment of Reasons for Studying the Bahá'í Religion, by Vernon Elvin Johnson, in World Order (1976). Though small and young, the Bahá’í Faith is a subject of central importance not only for the student of the history of religions but for anyone interested in world problems and proposals for their solution. [about]
  300. Challenges of Sustainable Development, by Augusto Lopez-Carlos, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22:1-4 (2012). Economic growth contributes to global prosperity, but it may conflict with environmental constraints. The interactions among conservation, technology, international cooperation, and human values can prevent future crises and assist collective evolution. [about]
  301. Challenges to Bahá'í Studies, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Discussion of the intellectual presentation of the Bahá'í Faith, and of the related topics of review, apologetics, and contemporary political contexts. [about]
  302. Challenging Apostasy: Responses to Moojan Momen's 'Marginality and Apostasy in the Bahá'í Community', by Michael Stausberg and Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 38:4 (2008). Six letters to the editor published in the issue following Momen's article. [about]
  303. Changing Reality: The Bahá'í Community and the Creation of a New Reality, by Moojan Momen, in História Questões & Debates, 43 (2005). The Bahá’í teachings criticize the socially created realities of warfare, environmental destruction, and the subordination of women, lower social classes and ethnic minorities, instead promoting a vision of global solidarity and individual worth. [about]
  304. Chinese Family Religion and World Religion, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Principles of filial piety and ancestor worship as practised in Chinese tradition; maintenance of genealogies and moral instruction of children with traditions of their forebears and "ancestral cults" help to reinforce the lineage and family solidarity. [about]
  305. Chinese Religions: Evolution, Compatibility and Adaptability - A Historical Perspective, by Kow Mei Kao, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Case study of the history of Chinese civilization through the formation of the three major religions in imperial China: Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism; their compatibility, adaptability, and mutual influences in their early development. [about]
  306. Choice of the West for Abdu'l-Bahá's Epoch-Making Trip, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Reasons for Abdu'l-Bahá choosing Western nations for the climax of his ministry, and results he achieved in Europe and the United States. [about]
  307. Chronicle of `Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani: Personal Reminiscences of the Insurrection at Zanjan, by Aqa Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). Translation of an account of the Babi struggle at Zanjan in 1850, as recollected by an aged eyewitness who had been a child at the time; an important source for early Babi history. [about]
  308. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 1 (1850-1853), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). Found sources for Bábí and Bahá'í history available in Span covering the years 1844 to 1947 (when the Bahá'í faith was established in Spain), pt. 1. [about]
  309. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 2 (1854-1876), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). Found sources for Bábí and Bahá'í history available in Span covering the years 1844 to 1947 (when the Bahá'í faith was established in Spain), pt. 2. [about]
  310. Chronicles of a Birth: Early References to the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Spain, part 3 (1873-1895), by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). Found sources for Bábí and Bahá'í history available in Span covering the years 1844 to 1947 (when the Bahá'í faith was established in Spain), pt. 3. [about]
  311. Chronological Issues in the Lawh-i-Hikmat of Bahá'u'lláh, Some, by Peter Terry, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An attempt to discover the antecedents of Bahá’u’lláh's distinctive chronology of ancient associations between Greek philosophers and Judean kings. Do Bahá’í historians have to critically re-examine the accepted Western accounts? [about]
  312. Church and State in the Bahá'í Faith: An Epistemic Approach, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Law and Religion, 24:1 (2008). On the public role of Bahá'í institutions; review of current secondary literature; temporal legitimacy vs. divine sovereignty; interaction of religion and politics; maturation and unity; an open vision of church and state. [about]
  313. City of Love, The: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Bruce Whitmore, in Bahá'í News, 52:7 (1975). History of the building of the temple in Turkmenistan, north of the Iranian province of Khurasan. [about]
  314. Civility and Piety as Foundations of Community, by Philip Selznick, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:1-2 (2004). Text of a talk by a sociologist on moral commitments we make in life, democratic principles, the nature of "community," and articles of faith. [about]
  315. Claiming legitimacy: Prophecy narratives from northern aboriginal women, by Julie Cruikshank, in The American Indian Quarterly (1994). Includes a discussion of Angela Sidney, a Tagish elder who was very active in the Bahá'í Faith, and who believed that there is not necessary any conflict between Anglicanism, Bahá'í, and indigenous shamanism. [about]
  316. Clouds and the Hiding God: Observations on some Terms in the Early Writing of Bahá'u'lláh, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Metaphorical usage of clouds and rain in the mystical Tablets Rashh-i-Amá, Lawh Kullu't-Ta'ám, and Qasídiyyih-Varqá'iyyih. [about]
  317. Cognitive-Developmental Psychology and the Baha'i Faith: Meaningful Connections, by Rhett Diessner, in Counseling & Values, 39:3 (1995). Some major concepts shared by Bahá'ís and adherents of cognitive-developmentalism; avenues of communication between members of the Bahá'í Faith and the therapeutic community. [about]
  318. Coherent Chaos and Chaotic Cosmos: The Qur'ān and the Symmetry of Truth, by Todd Lawson, in Weltkonstruktionen: Religiöse Weltdeutung zwischen Chaos und Kosmos vom Alten Orient bis zum Islam (2010). While at first glance the Qur'an appears to be chaotic in form and structure, on closer examination it reveals an interconnected logic of content, performance, imagery, grammar, and poetics. Article does not mention the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  319. Cold Winter in North Africa, A: The Case of the Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Naseem Kourosh, in International Law News, 41:3 (2012). Contemporary history of the Egyptian government's refusal to issue identification cards to Bahá'ís. [about]
  320. Collective Security: An Indispensable Requisite for a Lasting Peace, by Sovaida Ma’ani Ewing, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). The global community must come to collaborative agreements regarding policing, the military, nuclear weapons, and an international court. The Bahá'í Faith can offer much guidance for this process. [about]
  321. Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
  322. Commentary on the Azhar's Statement regarding Bahá'ís and Bahá'ísm, by Mohsen Enayat, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Response to an official 1986 pronouncement on the Faith by this prominent Egyptian university. [about]
  323. Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure..." (Tafsír-i-Hadith-i-Kuntu Kanzan Makhfíyyan), by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:4 (1995). Translation of a treatise written by 'Abdu'l-Bahá when he was in his teens, expounding on the terms "Hidden Treasure", "Love", "Creation", and "Knowledge" in a manner which suggests that the recipient was a Sufi and an admirer of Ibn 'Arabí. [about]
  324. Commentary: Some Interpretive Principles in the Bahá'í Writings, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Criteria which may be used to determine which of Shoghi Effendi writings are "interpretations", and thus permanently binding, and which are not. [about]
  325. Common Teachings from Chinese Culture and the Bahá'í Faith: From Material Civilization to Spiritual Civilization, by Albert Cheung, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An examination of the similarities in belief between the Bahá'í Faith and traditional Chinese culture. [about]
  326. CommonVisions: Photography and Conflict Transformation, by Chuck Egerton, in Global Journal of Peace Research and Praxis, 1:1 (2015). How an arts-based photography project, built on the concept of the oneness of humanity, was used to overcome racism using the universal language of photography and a medical model to bring unity and resolve conflict. [about]
  327. Community Agency and Islamic Education in Contemporary Zanzibar, by Caitlyn Bolton, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). Western political philosophy is primarily concerned with the dynamics of rights and responsibilities between the individual and the institutions; the concept of community is overlooked in such theories, and is even antithetical to the modern nation-state. [about]
  328. Comparison between the Commentary and Interpretation of an Islamic Tradition by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Ayatu'llah Khomeini, A, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). On different interpretations of the hadith regarding taqlíd, "to follow (legal interpretations)," as given by Shi`i clerics like Ayatu’llah Khomeini vs. the interpretation of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [about]
  329. Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3 (1999). Analysis and provisional translation of Sahífiy-i-Shattíyyih (Book of the River); on Bahá'u'lláh's experience in the Síyáh-Chál and whether he considered himself a Manifestation of God prior to his Ridván declaration. [about]
  330. Concept of 'Faithfulness' in the Bahá'í Texts in English Translation, The, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). On faithfulness (being faithful as an individual; God being faithful to His people; believers being faithful to the Covenant; Bahá’u’lláh calling for fidelity to the new Manifestation) and behavior expected of the followers. [about]
  331. Concept of Divine Law, The, by Mehrdad K. Meshgin, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). The changing impact of divine law on society; legal principles current in Europe are derived largely from the works on jurisprudence and the legal decision of Muslim theologians; Bahá'u'lláh's social teachings offer flexibility to address new concerns. [about]
  332. Concept of Freedom of Belief and Its Boundaries in Egypt, The: The Jehovah's Witnesses and the Baha'i Faith between Established Religions and an Authoritarian State, by Johanna Pink, in Culture and Religion,, 6:1 (2005). On how the Egyptian courts have dealt with the two most important non-Islamic faiths in Egypt, both of which have been officially dissolved and face strong opposition. [about]
  333. Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Juan Cole, in Bahá'í Studies, 9 (1982). Lengthy overview of Bahá'í theology and prophetology and their Islamic roots. [about]
  334. Concept of Nature in Baha'i Philosophy, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 2-3 (2014). Philosophies of nature and of science; holistic approach to reality; subjectivity; the theory of intelligibility; metaphysics; nature as the will of God; continuity and discontinuity in nature; origin of the universe; emanation and manifestation. [about]
  335. Concept of Sacred Justice in Hebrew Eschatology, by Gary Selchert, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). The concepts of Justice and Judgment in the Hebrew Bible; centuries before Christ, the social order of the Israelite tribes was legislated and enforced in accordance with the Covenant and Law of Moses; the formation of social ethics. [about]
  336. Concept of Spirituality, The, by William S. Hatcher, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Widely-read ABS monograph, re-published in the Bahá'í World. Includes chapters "The Nature of Man," "Process of Spiritual Growth," and "Collective Dimension of Spirituality." [about]
  337. Concept of the "Perfect Man" (Pole) in Sufism and the Bahá'í Notion of the Manifestation of God, The, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). While there is an obvious similarity between the Sufi concept of the "Perfect Man" and the Bahá'í concept of the "Manifestation of God," there are also striking differences; the theologies of at-Tirmidhí, Ibn al-'Arabí, Dáwud-al-Qaysarí, and Haydar Amulí. [about]
  338. Concept of the Manifestation of God in Chinese Symbolism: An Inter-civilizational Hermeneutic Study, by Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). Seemingly incompatible symbols can point to a common underlying meaning, connecting worldviews and perspectives often considered incommensurable. There are elements of the Chinese tradition that resonate deeply with the Bahá’í concept of Manifestation. [about]
  339. Conflict Resolution Movement, The, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:2 (1999). What exactly is conflict resolution? Why do so many different disciplines lay claim to it? This article is an introduction to the field, a review of conflict resolution in history, and a survey of contemporary legislation worldwide. [about]
  340. Conservation and Restoration of Calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam, The, by Shingo Ishikawa and Patrick Ravines (2004). Three versions of a paper explaining the procedure for preserving manuscripts at the Bahá'í World Centre, using the example of calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam. Includes high-resolution sample of Qalam's artwork. [about]
  341. Considerations in Setting Sacred Text to Music for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Arts Dialogue (1996). The relationship of music to the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a place and as a gathering of people, and a proposed set of 'rules' that can aid the conscious development of a Bahá'í devotional music. [about]
  342. Considerations Relating to the Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Some, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Gender distinctions in the Bahá'í inheritance laws might at first glance seem to favor male heirs, but the laws actually create a symmetrical equality. [about]
  343. Consolation of Theology, The: Absence of the Imam and Transition from Chiliasm to Law in Shi'ism, by Said Amir Arjomand, in Journal of Religion, 76:4 (1996). Overview of the Shi'i doctrine of occultation, or the "Hidden Imam," and how this idea evolved into a principle of salvation: historical background; hidden God / sealed prophecy; theodicy and law; rationalization. Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  344. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). Early attacks on the Bahá'í community in Iran were made mostly on the basis of religious accusations, but in the 20th century, non-religious accusations based on widely held and often fantastical conspiracy theories have become more prevalent. [about]
  345. Constitutional Movement and the Bahá'ís of Iran, The: The Creation of an 'Enemy Within', by Moojan Momen, in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 39:3 (2012). Bahá'ís had a complex relationship with the Constitutionalist Movement, sometimes supporting it and sometimes abstaining from involvement, but the impact of the Bahá'ís on the reformers and on the Revolution has been underestimated. [about]
  346. Constitutionality of Teaching Islam, The: The University of North Carolina Qur'an Controversy, by Christopher Buck, in Observing the Observer: The State of Islamic Studies in American Universities, ed. Mumtaz Ahmad (2012). Legal commentary on the lawsuit Yacovelli v. Moeser, filed in 2002 against UNC Chapel Hill over its academic orientation program requiring freshmen to read selected passages from the Qur’an. Includes review of Sell's Approaching the Qur'an. [about]
  347. Constructive Imaginary, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). In a 2007 letter on the closing of the BIHE, the Universal House of Justice introduced the concept of "constructive resilience"; on the relationship of this to other concepts in discourses on social change, and its relevance to the exigencies of the age. [about]
  348. Constructive Resilience, by Firaydoun Javaheri, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:4 (2018). How the perseverance of the Bahá'ís in Iran has resulted in the generality of the Iranian people beginning to admire and, in some cases, arising to assist the Bahá'ís. [about]
  349. Constructive Resilience: The Bahá'í Response to Oppression, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 35:2 (2010). Example of the non-adversarial approach of the Bahá'ís in Iran toward social change, their collective response to oppression, and heuristic insights into the dynamics of peace. [about]
  350. Contemporary Governance and Conflict Resolution: A Bahá'í Reading, by Graham Hassall (1999). The Bahá'í Writings provide the foundations for a "critique of modernity" at the same time that they suggest possible paths to the future, in particular in conflict resolution. [about]
  351. Continuing Contest between Exclusivism and Pluralism, The: Thoughts on the 2002 Day of Prayer for Peace, by Julio Savi, in World Order, 33.4 (2002). Origins and purpose of the Catholic "Day of Prayer in Assisi," and interfaith dialogue. [about]
  352. Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran: Some Preliminary Observations, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1990). Conversion patterns of Zoroastrians and Jews in the period 1877-1921. [about]
  353. Conversion of the Great-Uncle of the Báb, The, by Ahang Rabbani, in World Order, 30:3 (1999). The history of Hájí Mírzá Sayyid Muhammad (1798-1876), maternal uncle of the Bab. [about]
  354. Conversive Relationality in Bahá'í Scholarship: Centering the Sacred and Decentering the Self, by Susan Berry Brill de Ramirez, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). Ways in which Bahá’í scholars might follow the process of consecration by centering the sacred within and decentering the self out of academic work; a conversive model of communication and scholarship is rooted in the sacred, emphasizing relationality. [about]
  355. Conversive Turn in Bahá'í Scripture, The: An Intersubjective Communications Model for Bridging Global Diversity, by Susan Berry Brill de Ramirez, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 17:1-4 (2007). Communications which manifest equality of participants bring diverse persons and elements of the world together. Bahá'í consultation exemplifies the capacity of language to transform the world through the unifying power of interpersonal connections. [about]
  356. Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Success, by Marcello Palazzi and George Starcher (1998). How social responsibility can contribute to competitiveness and success. [about]
  357. Countenance of the Blessed Beauty in the Mirror of Mawlúd Tablets, The, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Review of four tablets in compilation from the Universal House of Justice about the commemoration of the anniversary of the birth of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, and guidance from 2015 intended to harmonize their lunar and solar dates. [about]
  358. Creating an Inclusive Narrative, by Australian Bahá'í Community (2020). Culmination of a series of nationwide round tables, conveying the vision of Australians to foster a socially cohesive society. [about]
  359. Creating Environments that Enhance Spirituality, by Dawn Staudt, in Solas, 3 (2003). The teachings and laws of the Bahá’í Faith are for spiritual advancement of both the individual and society. Three areas in particular help individual development: the use of personal prayer, the arts and Tranquility Zones, and the role of encouragement. [about]
  360. Creation, by Lasse Thoresen, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 12:1-4 (2002). Contributing to the creation of a new civilization as a researcher or an artist means participating in the process of never-ending unfolding; the divine names are the eternal archetypes organizing the material world; dialogue between thinking and reality. [about]
  361. Creative Act and the Spirit, The, by Bonnie Wilder, in The Creative Circle, ed. Michael Fitzgerald (1989). Essay on the connections between art and the Bahá'í teachings, from the perspective of personal artistic experience. (First 90% of article only, pages 17-34.) [about]
  362. Creative Inspiration: Symbolism and Seeing, by Karel Fontaine, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). Examples of visual art which demonstrate the creative impulse at work, together with the symbolism inherent in the pieces. [about]
  363. Crime and Punishment: Bahá'í Perspectives for a Future Criminal Law, by Udo Schaefer, in Law and International Order. Proceedings of the first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order (1996). There is a moral crisis at the present time due to the decline of religion. The Bahá'í teachings uphold the principles of divine justice, individual responsibility, moral education, and the fear of God. [about]
  364. Crisis and the Power of an Inclusive Historical Consciousness: Progressing from Delusional Habits to Dynamic Freedom, by Todd Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:1-2 (2020). On delusional ways of thinking: the habits of totalizing reality vs. fragmenting reality. These lead us to ideologize and dichotomize. Maturity needs inclusive historical consciousness and equal interplay between the individual and the collective. [about]
  365. Crisis in Babi and Bahá'í Studies, The: Part of a Wider Crisis in Academic Freedom?, by Denis MacEoin, in British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1 (1990). Response to Cole's review of MacEoin's "Hierarchy, Authority, and Eschatology in Early Bábí Thought" with comments on "outsider" scholarship versus faith-based approaches. [about]
  366. Crisis of the Imamate and the Institution of Occultation in Twelver Shiism, The: A Sociohistorical Perspective, by Said Amir Arjomand, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 28:4 (1996). Background of the history and theology of concepts like Qa'im, Mahdi, ghayba, and the hidden twelfth Imam. No mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  367. Criteria of Knowledge, The: Beyond Inspiration, by Julio Savi, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vols. 2-3 (2014). On the epistemology of inspiration and intuition; 4 criteria of human knowledge: sense perception, intellect, scriptural tradition, and inspiration. Abdu'l-Bahá adds a fifth: the inmost heart. [about]
  368. Crossing Religious Boundaries: Interfaith Challenges for the Future, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Bahá'í approach to inter-religious harmony: coming together with other faiths in the search for truth; understanding that there are relativistic elements to faith; testing theology by its moral effects; propagating religious truth by the force of example. [about]
  369. Cultural Pluralism in the Bahá'í Community, by Peggy Caton, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). The idea of relative truth implies a situational approach to living. Bahá'í teachings encourage both diversity and harmonious co-existence. [about]
  370. Cyprus Exiles, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). History of Mirza Yahya's family and the four followers of Bahá'u'lláh exiled with them in Cyprus. Includes genealogies. [about]
  371. Dangers of Reading, The: Inlibration Communion and Transference in the Qur'an Commentary of The Bab, by Todd Lawson, in Scripture and Revelation (1997). Tafsír (traditional Qur'an commentary) and the writings of the Bab. [about]
  372. Dashavatara and Progressive Revelation, by Anupam Premanand, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). The phenomenon of Divine Revelation from the Hindu and Bahá'í points of view is studied in terms of religion as an eternal process. [about]
  373. Day of God (Yawmu'llah) and the Days of God (Ayyamu'llah), by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Comparison of Biblical and Islamic antecedents of the symbol of the "Day of God." [about]
  374. De la Córdoba Mora a los Bahá'ís de Irán, by Boris Handal, in Revista Cultura y Religión, 4:1 (2010). Contrast between the contemporary Iranian Bahá'í community and the treatment of religious minorities in Spain under the Moors. [about]
  375. Death Penalty, The: Australian Legal Institutions vs the Bahá'í Faith?, by Roger Le Lievre, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). The Bahá'í teachings accept the application of the death penalty as a punishment for murder as an expression of retributive justice. [about]
  376. Declaration Dominus Iesus, The: A Brake on Ecumenism and Interfaith Dialogue?, by Julio Savi, in World Order, 32.2 (2001). Contents of a Declaration by Cardinal Ratzinger in 2000 on the "unicity and the salvific universality of Jesus Christ and the Church," world opinion on it, and how its position compares with the Bahá’í teachings. [about]
  377. Dei Verbum: A Bahá'í Perspective on the Roman Catholic Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, by Marco Oliveira, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). On some basic Christian Catholic beliefs on divine revelation, how the Bahá'í Faith views Christianity, and theological differences and similarities between the two. [about]
  378. Deification of Jesus, The, by Jack McLean, in World Order (1980). The apotheosis of Christ is a common factor to all branches of Christianity. This paper examines the historical development of this belief, from the writings of St. Paul, gnosticism, and the debates between Arius, Cyril, and Nestorius. Also in French. [about]
  379. Democratic Elections without Campaigns? Normative Foundations of National Baha'i Elections, by Arash Abizadeh, in World Order, 37:1 (2005). Article on the philosophical foundations and core values of Baha’i elections, with particular attention to its relation to democratic theory. [about]
  380. Depression: Biological, Psychosocial, and Spiritual Dimensions and Treatment, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:4 (2015). Biological, psychosocial, and environmental factors contribute to the development of depression. If religious beliefs and spiritual values also play a role, what insights can the Bahá'í Faith offer? [about]
  381. Depression, Stigma, and the Soul, by Patricia McIlvride, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:1-2 (2017). New recovery models, like interpersonal neurobiology, are challenging the medical model in the treatment of mental illness. By defining the mind as transcendent and both embodied and relational, new avenues of healing become possible. [about]
  382. Der Messianismus des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts und die Entstehung der Baha'i Religion, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Entstehung der Bahá'í Religion, eds. Johann Christoph Bürgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). On the resurgence of a millenarianistic climate in the 19th century from China through the Middle-East to the USA. It highlights the millenniarist mood in Iran at the time of the beginnings of the Bábí and Bahai religions. [about]
  383. Destiny and Freedom in the Bahá'í Writings, by Julio Savi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 20:1-4 (2010). Bahá'í writings on human free will and fate: our lives are free, yet also regulated by the decrees of God. Freedom is best enjoyed through understanding God's will, our spiritual purpose (H.M. Balyuzi Memorial Lecture). [about]
  384. Developing a Participatory Approach to Learning, by Maija Pihlainen, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:2 (1991). The Macau-based School of the Nations’ philosophy of education, and its implications for the school’s curriculum development process. The Bahá'í approach to education emphasizes moral education, participation, cooperation, and consultation. [about]
  385. Development and Decline of an Early Bahá'í Community: Saint John, N.B., 1910-1925 , by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Community Histories: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 6 (1992). The brief early history of the Saint John Bahá'ís. Established in 1910, the Bahá'í community struggled in the hostile environment of New Brunswick. In 1925 the community disappeared, to be reestablished only in recent times. [about]
  386. Development and Dimensions of Love in Marriage, by Hossain Danesh, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). As with all forms of love, love in marriage is developmental in nature. Its development is closely related to the process of maturation in the individual. [about]
  387. Development and Influence of the Bahá'í Administrative Order in Great Britain, 1914-1950, by Phillip Smith, in Community Histories: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 6 (1992). Overview of this history: the early years; the Bahá'í councils; the guardianship of Shoghi Effendi; problems and difficulties; resurgence; establishing the Faith; spreading the Faith. [about]
  388. Development of Humankind, The, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). From a religious perspective, beyond their material and intellectual development, human beings can attain spirituality. Human life is like a school: the teacher is the spiritual Master, the text is the revealed book, the pupil is each human being. [about]
  389. Dialogue Among Civilizations: Ancient and Future, Transitions and Potentials, by Theo A. Cope, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Many ideas in Chinese civilization resonate with Bahá'í thought. The I Ching highlights differences between western and eastern philosophy, the notion of embodiment in the Confucian view of the noble person, and transforming material to spiritual. [about]
  390. Dialogue between Yin-Yang Concepts and the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Yin-yang, a pivotal theory in Chinese thought influencing government, architecture, relationships, and ethics, has many similarities with the Bahá’í Faith, including the origin of matter, the nature of history, man-woman relationships, and health. [about]
  391. dialogue magazine: image scans of all issues (1986). All six issues (in picture scans of each page) of an independent, short-lived journal containing scholarly discussion, news, interviews, and poetry. [about]
  392. Die deutsche Auswanderung 1816/1817 in den Kaukasus und ihre millenaristischen Hintergründe, by Kamran Ekbal, in Beiträge des 'Irfán-Kolloqiums, 3 (2006). The phenomenon of emigration from Germany to the Caucasus, Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan around 1816-1817, and its messianic background. [about]
  393. Difficult Case, A: Beyer's Categories and the Bahá'í Faith, by Sen McGlinn, in Social Compass, 50 (2003). Beyer considers that a religious movement which seeks to have religious norms enshrined in legislation has adopted the 'conservative option' in response to globalisation. Is this a useful categorisation for a global stage? [about]
  394. Digital Citizenship: The New Citizenship, by Boris Handal, in Mobile Makes Learning Free (2016). This book chapter discusses the need for introducing the notion of virtues and spiritual attitudes in the delivery of learning experiences fostering digital citizenship values from a Bahá'í perspective. [about]
  395. Dilemmas and Prospects of Writing a Bahá'í Encyclopedia, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). The need for a Bahá’í encyclopedia and a description of the nature, organization, and editing of the encyclopedic dictionary project endorsed in 1984 by the United States Bahá’ís; dilemmas which accompany its undertaking.  [about]
  396. Discourse on Bahá'í Theology, A: A Treatise by Dr. 'Alí-Murád Dávúdí on God and Revelation, by Ali Murad Davudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:4 (2021). Overview of the life of Davudi, a distinguished scholar and researcher and prolific author, followed by a translation of a treatise on the transcendence of God, apophatic theology, knowledge of God, emanation and manifestation, and divine attributes. [about]
  397. Discourse, Identity, and Global Citizenship, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, 20:3 (2008). What does it mean to be a "global citizen"? From early Greek times, the concept of citizenship expanded from "inhabitant of a city" to a democratic ideal of self-determination. It now includes global relationships, interdependence, and altruism. [about]
  398. Discourses of Knowledge, by Frank Lewis, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought, ed. John Danesh, Seena Fazel (2004). Many statements in the Writings are couched in terms of a particular discourse, or intellectual tradition, for their immediate audience. Understanding context can help evaluate whether any given statement is meant as factual truth or as metaphor. [about]
  399. Discovering Imageless Truths: The Bahá'í Pilgrimage of Juliet Thompson, Artist, by Christopher White, in American Religious Liberalism, ed. Leigh E. Schmidt and Sally M. Promey (2012). Draft of an article, later published, prepared for a conference on the history and theory of American Religious Liberalism. Juliet Thompson is used to provide an example of a cosmopolitan Christian American seeker who found the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  400. Discussion with Farida Vahedi, Executive Director of the Department of External Affairs, National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India, A, by Michael Bodakowski and Katherine Marshall (2011). Overview of Vahedi's life and work, history of the Faith in India and development projects, the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity, and issues regarding migration and protection of women and girls. [about]
  401. Disinvestment: Is It a Bahá'í Issue?, by Marjan Nirou, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Economic sanctions as a response to apartheid, the background of South Africa, Bahá'í approaches to preventing racism, and imprisoned children. Includes replies by Steven Scholl, Jihmye Collins, Paul Caprez, Lawrence Miller, and Drew Remignanti. [about]
  402. Divide and Rule: The Creation of the Alawi State after World War I, by Necati Alkan, in Fikrun wa Fann ("Art and Thought") (2013). Summary of 20th-century history of the Nusayri/Alawi Shi'i movement in Syria and Turkey. (No mention of Bahá'ís.) [about]
  403. Divine Qualities of Spiritual Dialogue, by Piya Tan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). The Buddhist basis for dialogue is found in its four virtues: love (the world as an extended family), compassion (listening to others), altruistic joy (learning from their success and beliefs) and equanimity (courage to accept the spirituality of others). [about]
  404. Divine Revelation: The Basis of All Civilization, by Anton Haddad (1902). Commentary on the influence of the Prophets on human society. [about]
  405. Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
  406. Doctrine of Progressive Revelation in the Baha'i Faith, by Daniil V. Pivovarov, in Journal of Siberian Federal University, 4:1 (2011). On the ideological basis of progressive revelation, views of Bahá'u'lláh and his followers on the nature of a prophet, and the mission of great prophets. [about]
  407. Doing Bahá'í Scholarship in the 1990s: A Religious Studies Perspective, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). Argues that Bahá'í studies must address contemporary world issues, dialogues in pluralism, the New Age movement, and secular ideologies. [about]
  408. Domestic Temporalities: Sensual Patterning in Persian Migratory Landscapes, by Simone Dennis and Megan Warin, in Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 7:2 (2007). Embodied paths of patterning, memory and emotion amongst Persian immigrant women in Adelaide, especially the Bahá'í expatriate community. Link to document (offsite). [about]
  409. Dr. MacEoin's "Problems of Scholarship...": Some Thoughts, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:3 (1982). The nature of faith-based approaches to studying religion, authoritarianism, supernatural vs. human knowledge, Bahá'í "review", and examination of some sources. [about]
  410. Dreams and their Interpretation in the Bahá'í Religion: Some Preliminary Remarks, by Necati Alkan, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Outline of the importance of dreams and their interpretation in the Bahá'í Religion; dream interpretation in Islam; statements on dreams by Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá; a dream interpretation by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Ottoman Turkish. [about]
  411. Duty of Kindness and Sympathy Towards Strangers, The, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). Integrating immigrants into the culture of their new country is becoming a focus in some Western states. In 2007 the Italian government issued a “Charter on the Values and Significance of Citizenship and Integration,” which reflects such Bahá'í ideals. [about]
  412. Early Zoroastrian Conversions to the Baha'i Faith in Yazd, Iran, by Susan Maneck, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 2 (1984). A history of the gradual process of conversion among some Zoroastrians to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran from the 1880s to 1921, based on heretofore unstudied biographical materials. [about]
  413. Ecological Stewardship as Applied Spirituality: A Bahá'í Perspective, by John Thelen Steere, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 15:1-4 (2005). The significance and dimensions of environmental stewardship — the name given to the emerging practice of habitation restoration, land conservation, resource management, and parks and recreation — and its relationship to the Bahá’í teachings. [about]
  414. Economic Justice and the Creation of a New International Economic Order, by Keith Suter, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). The "New Right," history of economic philosophy and the role of the Church in Europe, challenges of the global economy, the failure of the UN to deal with the problems of the globalized economy, and how NGOs and individuals can work for economic justice. [about]
  415. Economic Prosperity: A Global Imperative, by Mary Fish, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). Economic growth does not necessarily enhance human welfare. The Prosperity of Humankind recognizes the role of economics in igniting the capacity of humankind. The Bahá'í concept of human nature opens a dialogue between religion and economists. [about]
  416. Education and Moral Development in Children, by Susan Clay Stoddart, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:1 (1988). We are caught between the imperative to function as a world culture and a belief that we need to maintain separate racial, cultural, and ethnic identities; strategies that parents and teachers can use to help children develop an identity with all peoples. [about]
  417. Education for Interdependence: The University and the Global Citizen, by Michael Karlberg, in Global Studies Journal, 3:1 (2010). This paper advocates the value of an outcomes-based approach to global citizenship education and suggests a framework of core learning outcomes that can guide and inform the development of global citizenship curricula in universities. [about]
  418. Education of women and socio-economic development, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions, volume 13 (2002). The findings of recent research on the social and the economic benefits of female education, which provides insights as to why Bahá'u'lláh stressed its importance. [about]
  419. Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Women’s rights have been undermined for centuries; philosophical and linguistic gender-related biases and their effect on the degradation of women’s status in religion; suggestions for eradicating the causes of inequality in order to hasten world unity. [about]
  420. Effect of Revelation on Artistic Expression, The, by Otto Donald Rogers, in Bahá'í Studies, 10 (1982). The themes and processes of visual art are the same as those of constructive evolution: man as an instrument, desire for order and beauty, use of materials, element of light, principle of unity, balance of polarities, and mobility through faith. [about]
  421. Effects of addiction/alcoholism, acculturation, physical, emotional and sexual violence on the education of aboriginal children, The, by Tjanara Goreng-Goreng, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). The social problems facing many Australian aboriginal children; the need to involve indigenous peoples themselves in responding to these problems. [about]
  422. Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
  423. El proyecto educacional Bahá'í hacia un sistema universal de educacion, by Keith Bookwalter, in Principios para una educación del siglo XXI (2000). Las principales tareas que enfrentan hoy los educadores baha'is y que constituyen lo que he denominado como "El proyecto educacional baha'i", y los obstaculos como las oportunidades frente a la generación actual de escolares y educadores baha'is. [about]
  424. Emblems of Faithfulness: Pluralism in Meaning and Beauty in the Ordinary, by Helen Cheng and Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). Memorials of the Faithful is notable for the diversity of personalities described, and the sheer ordinariness of many of those remembered lives. These two aspects of the text highlight some of the broader questions raised by the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  425. Emergence and Organization of Chinese Religions, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). The nature of leadership and succession in Chinese religious organisations and society, home temples, village temples, and monasteries. [about]
  426. Emergence from Obscurity: The Journey of Sociology in the Bahá'í Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). The field of sociology and the Bahá’í Faith share important principles and both challenge widely-held beliefs, yet there has sometimes been a wall of silence separating them. This paper explores how the Faith informs the sociology of Bahá'í scholars. [about]
  427. Emergence of the Bahá'í Faith in Singapore (1950-1972), The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The first two decades of the Faith in Singapore, from the arrival of pioneers in 1950 to the formation of the NSA in 1972; the activities of the LSA of Singapore; strategies used to proclaim the existence of the Faith; features of the early community. [about]
  428. Emergence of World Civilization, The: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). A study of the Guardian's "The Unfoldment of World Civilization" (1936); humanity's coming of age; the process of integration; pangs of death and birth during an age of transition; collapse of Islam; breakdown of political and economic structures. [about]
  429. Emergence, Enchantment, Entanglement and Excellence of the Cosmos, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Science is gradually revealing Bahá'u'lláh's vision that the universe is God’s creation and every created thing in this world is leading to God -- as illustrated by developments in neuroscience, neurocardiology, and quantum physics. [about]
  430. Empire for the Faithful, A Colony for the Dispossessed, An, by Robert D. Crews, in Cahiers d'Asie centrale, 17/18 (2009). History of the establishment of Tsarist power in Turkestan and the goal of earning support from their Muslim territories. Includes discussion of the Bahá'í Faith in Ashkabad and Russian/Bahá'í mutual political interests in Persia and Turkey. (Offsite.) [about]
  431. Enacting Thought: Divine Will, Human Agency, and the Possibility of Justice, by Holly Hanson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 19:1-4 (2009). Societies evolve through generations of human decision making. Using the examples of 300 years of politics in Uganda vis à vis England, processes that create injustice can be seen as gradual and unintentional, while implementing justice is deliberate. [about]
  432. End of Days, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the word “messiah”, the anointed, which describes the redeemer like a priest, consecrated by being anointed with holy oil; prophecies about the last days and the final coming; predictions about the time of the "end," which Bahá'ís interpret as 1863. [about]
  433. End of the World: Whatever Happened?, The: Or Leftover Time to Kill, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1991). If we contrast the eschatology of Bahá’u’lláh with that of Hegel and Nietzsche, we can locate and explore the spiritual origins of the planetary consciousness (the Divine Springtime) upon which the survival of humankind and the globe itself now depends. [about]
  434. Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
  435. Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
  436. Epistemological Implications of the Gradated Claims to Divine Authority in the Bahá'í Writings: Reflections on Infallibility, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 17:1-4 (2007). There are different levels of infallibility, from the greater (the Manifestations who are "omniscient at will") to the lesser (like the Guardian, who has conferred freedom-from-error). [about]
  437. Epistle of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad 'the Báb' to Sultan Abdulmecid, by Necati Alkan, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). The Bab's Tablet to Sultan Abdulmecid and some notes on early Bábís in the Ottoman Empire. [about]
  438. Equality and Baha'i Principles in Northern Ireland, by Edwin Graham, in Solas, 1 (2001). A paper in two parts: (1) the development of equality legislation in Northern Ireland, and (2) the Bahá’í Teachings in relation to equality and the extent to which Northern Irish legislation applies or does not apply them. [about]
  439. Equality of Women, The: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The Bahá’í teachings simultaneously assert the equality of men and women whilst advocating in some cases distinct duties according to gender. This seems paradoxical, but there can be gender distinction without inequality in status or function.  [about]
  440. Ernst Bloch's Philosophy of Hope and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). This Marxist thinker, like the Bahá'í perspective, adheres to an evolutionary worldview: reality is a teleological process in which all things strive to actualize their inherent potentials and complete themselves in their highest possible condition. [about]
  441. Eschatology of Globalization, The: The Multiple Messiahship of Bahá'u'lláh Revisited, by Christopher Buck, in Numen Book Series: Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, ed. Moshe Sharon (2004). This paper argues that Bahá'u'lláh's signal contribution to globalization was to ethicize and sacralize it. [about]
  442. Essence of Man, The: Towards a Bahá'í Understanding of Human Nature and Psychology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). Commentary on a section from Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet to Mírzá Hádí, about "the essence of man." This paper attempts to provide an understanding of what is expressed in these Words and understand "Who is Man." [about]
  443. 'The Eternal enemy of Islam': Abdullah Cevdet and the Bahá'í religion, by Necati Alkan, in Bulletin of SOAS, 68:1 (2005). Cevdet, a member of the Young Turk Committee of Union and Progress, in 1922 published an article on the Bahá'ís, for which he was politically attacked. (Offsite.) [about]
  444. Ether, Quantum Physics and the Bahá'í Writings, by Robin Mihrshahi, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 4 (2002). Analysis of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's use of the term “ether”, correlated to His definition of this term as a medium not only for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, but also for the communication of spiritual impulses to the physical world. [about]
  445. Ethics and Entrepreneurship, An Oxymoron?: A Transition to a Free Market Economy in Eastern Europe, by George Starcher (1997). The process of entrepreneurship and the importance of business ethics to entrepreneurial success, and the concept of stages of ethical consciousness and some of the reasons business ethics makes good business sense. Does not mention the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  446. Ethics Based on Science Alone?, by Ian Kluge, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). A critique of the idea that ethics can be based on science alone; questions of legitimacy and authority in ethics; reflections on Sam Harris' book The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values. [about]
  447. Ethics for a Global Society, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Addresses the collapse of moral order and value systems in the contemporary world, advocating in response a global ethic based on the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [about]
  448. Ethique Baha'i, by Udo Schaefer, in Recueil de Conferences (2008). [about]
  449. Evolution and Baha'i Belief, by Keven Brown and Eberhard von Kitzing: Review and Commentary, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 4 (2004). Lengthy overview of the Bahá'í response to Darwinism and the concepts of parallel evolution and species change. [about]
  450. Evolution of Reality, The, by George Land, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). Entropy maintains that all structures eventually decay. Humanity's challenge is to understand that nature's creative process changes systems, including organizations and civilization; this can lead to new connections, ideas, resources, and opportunities. [about]
  451. Evolving Role of Bahá'í Scholarship, The, by Vahid Rafati, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Lecture on the evolution of Bahá’í scholarship; ulamás and the Faith; role of the ulamás in Islam; changes instituted by Bahá'u'lláh; abolition of clerical authority; historical legacy of some scholars; present challenges and future scholarship. [about]
  452. Evolving toward a Bahá'í Economic System, by Gregory C. Dahl, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:3 (1991). Ideals are fruitless if not implemented. There needs to be a balance and an interplay between goals and actions. A "Bahá’í economic system" suggests a number of topics for further research. [about]
  453. Examination of the Cultural Relativity of Human Rights, An, by Jonathan Patrick, in Associate, 36 (2001). On the discourse between proponents of the universality of human rights, and those of their cultural and religious relativity. Are human rights inherent in the individual, or imposed by a neo-imperialist West? [about]
  454. Execution of the Jews of Banu Quraida and the Conquest of Persia, The: The Dilemma of Early Islam, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran Nameh (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá's views on the mass execution of the Banu Qurayza Jews in Medina in 627 A.D. [article in Persian]. [about]
  455. Exile from El Salvador: A Conversation with Antonio, by Eileen Estes and Richard Hollinger, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). Interview with a former member of the Salvadorean Bahá'í community about his history, and about threats to the Central American refugee community in Los Angeles. Includes report "Human Rights Workers in El Salvador Suppressed," by Steven Hall-Williams. [about]
  456. Experience of Iranian Bahá'í Refugees in Atlantic Canada, by Deborah K. van den Hoonaard, in Our Diverse Cities, 5 (2008). Short article exploring what it was like for refuges from Iran in the 1980s. [about]
  457. Explanation of the Symbol of the Greatest Name, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1968). Calligraphy, numerology, and theology of Baha and the ringstone symbol. [about]
  458. Exploration into the Political Economy of Global Prosperity, An, by Farhad Sabetan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:4 (1997). Concepts of prosperity and well-being from an economic and global perspective; concept of global destitution; current assumptions about human nature and human relationships with the physical world and society are inadequate; ethical first principles. [about]
  459. Exploring Male Oppression from a Family Systems Perspective, by Janet Huggins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:2 (1990). On sexual inequality; parallels between adolescent sex role development and the evolutionary stage of our society; examples of how both men and women are oppressed; implications of achieving equality for both world peace and individual intrapsychic unity. [about]
  460. Exploring the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Sen McGlinn, in Vizier, 35:6-36:3 (1997). Four topics: Entry by troops and the institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; the House of Worship and the House of Justice; the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Meeting, and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Building. [about]
  461. Exploring Universes of Discourse: The Meeting of the Bahá'í Faith and Traditional Society, by Moojan Momen, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). To communicate, people need to share not just a common language; there must also be a common framework for understanding, a "universe of discourse." Bahá'í pioneers must bridge cultural and linguistic divides when imparting the teachings of the Faith. [about]
  462. Exposition of the Tablet of the World (Lawh-i-Dunyá), An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). To fully appreciate the historical significance of the Tablet of the World, this essay first portrays the developing conditions in Persia and in the world that preceded this Tablet, then discusses its salient points. [about]
  463. Exposition on the Fire Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh, An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). A description of Bahá'u'lláh's Fire Tablet, a dialogue between himself and God on suffering and sacrifice, and an account of its historical context; mystical intercourse between the twin stations of Bahá'u'lláh, human and divine. [about]
  464. Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Bahá'ís on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Bahá interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
  465. Fact and Fiction: Interrelationships between History and Imagination, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:3-4 (2000). On the tension between "fact" and "fiction," between objective history and our relative and subjective stories, between art as the representation of reality and faith based on the Word of God. We inherited a responsibility to resolve this tension. [about]
  466. Failure of the Tommy Kabu Movement, The: A Reassessment of the Evidence, by Graham Hassall, in Pacific Studies, 14:2 (1991). The rise and fall of Koivi-Aua, better known as Tom Kabu (1922?-1969), an influential local innovator and "proto-nationalist" leader in colonial Papua New Guinea and the first Papuan Bahá'í. [about]
  467. Faith in Action: Reflections on Constructive Resilience from Nicaragua, by Bradley Wilson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). Poverty and hunger among farmworkers; faith and social action; observations on the discourse of constructive resilience; social movements seeking to overcome oppression; the practice of "accompaniment" — long-term immersive participation and observation. [about]
  468. Faith of Science and the Method of Religion, The, by Brian Aull, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:2 (1988). A fundamental teaching of the Bahá’í Faith is that science and religion are harmonious and complementary: religious faith should be shaped by a process of critical inquiry and the limitations of science acknowledged. [about]
  469. Faith, Protest, and Progress, by H. Elsie Austin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:2 (1998). Protest is occasionally necessary and justified; it does not have to mean violence, but rather the courage to reject the false and unjust. Protest based on faith can have a transforming effect on both the individual and society and racial unity. [about]
  470. Family and Early Life of Tahirih Qurrat al-`Ayn, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Summary of information about the ancestry and background of Tahirih available in Persian and Arabic; tensions in her paternal family, which must have affected her as she grew up. [about]
  471. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
  472. Feminine Forms of the Divine in Bahá'í Scriptures, by Paula A. Drewek, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Examples of the interaction between male and female principles in the writings. Complementarity of masculine and feminine images of divinity enriches our understanding of the divine–human encounter, but does not supplant the unity or unknowability of God. [about]
  473. Feminism, Men and the Bahá'í Faith, by Morgan Wilson, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Separate reflections on feminism and on men and the Bahá'í Faith. The challenges faced by each are acknowledged and the need for a balance between the two asserted. [about]
  474. Fifteen Years of Failed Prophecy: Coping with cognitive dissonance in a Bahá'í sect, by Robert W. Balch and John Domitrovich, in Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, ed. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (1997). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant. Followed by "The End is Nearish," Chase's predictions satirized by Harper's. [about]
  475. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Passing of Bahiyyih Khanum, The Greatest Holy Leaf, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Includes compilations about Bahiyyih Khanum, a selection of her letters, the 50th anniversary commemoration (1982), a bibliography, and tributes by Ruhiyyih Khanum, Ali Nakhjavani, and Bahiyyih Nakhjavani. [about]
  476. Fifty Bahá'í Principles of Unity: A Paradigm of Social Salvation, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2014). World religions are systems of salvation, liberation, or harmony, in direct response to the perceived human predicament. To Baha’is, this predicament is profound estrangement and the solution is world unity, from family to international relations. [about]
  477. Fighting for the Nuṣayrī Soul: State, Protestant Missionaries and the ʿAlawīs in the Late Ottoman Empire, by Necati Alkan, in Die Welt des Islams, 52 (2012). Overview of the Alawites/Nusayris (Syrian Shi'is) in the start of the 19th century, political attitudes in Syria and Istanbul, and the influence of Protestant missionaries. [about]
  478. Finding a Trace of the Traceless Friend: Reflection on Bahá'í Scholarship as a Journey in the Valley of Search, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Prerequisites of search; independent investigation and the role of the heart, culture and tradition; dealing with distractions; exclusivity of search and sacrificing; seeking truth in every soul; and the standard of Majnún — seek her everywhere. [about]
  479. Firm Cord of Servitude, The, by Theo A. Cope, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). A call for a revisioning of mysticism's claims of "union with God" in light of the Bahá'í Teachings as well as Jungian psychology. [about]
  480. Firmness in the Covenant and Protection of the Cause of God, by Charles Mason Remey (1914). Two versions of an essay written in response to "certain conditions of violation" of the Covenant in London and other European assemblies: a 5-page essay from 1914, and a 28-page (unpublished?) article from 1918. [about]
  481. First Four Caliphs of Islam, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 1 (2001). Many Bahá’ís know little about Islam, and most of what they do know is based on minority Shi’ism. This overview of the first four caliphs, the "Rightly Guided," will help introduce Sunni Islam. [about]
  482. First and Finest: John Henry and Clara Hyde Dunn in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Herald of the South (1985). Introduction of the Bahá'í Faith to Australia and New Zealand. [about]
  483. First Obligation, The: Lady Blomfield and the Save the Children Fund, by Robert Weinberg (1998). Bio prepared for the UK Bahá'í Centenary (1998-99). [about]
  484. First Recorded Bahá'í Fireside, The, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 21 (2019). An episode from Browne's A Year Amongst the Persians which can be regarded as a first "fireside" — a meeting with Bahá'ís in Shiraz in March 1888. [about]
  485. “First we speak of logical proofs': Discourse of knowledge in the Bahá'í writings, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Recovering the intellectual context of particular discourses in the Bahá'í writings can help to evaluate whether a given statement is meant to convey a propositional fact or a rhetorical truth. [about]
  486. Fixing the Gaze: Reflections on "The Order of Bahá'u'lláh" in the Báb's Persian Bayan, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18:1 (2006). On the word nazm, "order," and how Bahá'u'lláh and then Shoghi Effendi extended used this as a foundation to build the concept of a Bahá'í World Order, a sacred socio-political entity. Includes translation of Bayan 3:16. [about]
  487. Flow of Divine Authority, by Brent Poirier, in Deepen, 3.4:9 (1996). Scriptural authority for the Universal House of Justice to function infallibly without the presence of a living Guardian. [about]
  488. For the Betterment of the World, to the Glory of God: The Emergence of Bahá'í Houses of Worship, by Ann Boyles, in Bahá'í World (2019). Overiew of the concept and history of the Bahá'í House of Worship. [about]
  489. Foreword: Time and the Badí` Calendar, by Udo Schaefer, in Time and the Bahá'í Era: A Study of the Badí' Calendar, ed. Gerald Keil (2008). An investigation of ‘time’ and the ‘Badí‘ calendar’ and its inherent symbolism. [about]
  490. Forging More Perfect Unions, by William Barnes, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Social advances toward inclusive political structures must be accompanied by a moral advance toward universal values; three stages of global political unification as described in the Bahá’í writings are confederation, federation, and commonwealth. [about]
  491. Formation de la Secte des Babi, by Carla Serena, in Hommes et Choses en Perse (1883). Also sections "Les Exploits de la Secte de Babi," "Mort du Point," "Complot des Bábí contre Nasser-Eddin," and "Attentat." Historical overview from a traveller to Persia in 1877-1878, who says she met with a witness to events. [about]
  492. Forum Concerning St. Paul, by Christopher Buck and Juan Cole, in World Order, 13:4 (1979). Responses to Hatcher's review (World Order, 1978) of Schaefer's Light Shineth in Darkness, by Buck, Hatcher, Gregory Shaw, Willibald Duerschmid, and Marzieh Gail (World Order, 13:4) and by Cole (World Order 13:2, Winter 1978). [about]
  493. Foundations of Mathematics: An Overview at the Close of the Second Millennium, by William S. Hatcher, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). Article posits that the foundational study of mathematics has only emerged in this century, and discusses its evolutionary growth. [about]
  494. Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta,, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). The concept of detachment in Bahá’u’lláh’s Writings and its application to Doris Lessing’s Sufi-inspired novel, Shikasta; the reciprocal relation between detachment and attachment and service to the new prophet. [about]
  495. Four Talks Redefining Democracy, Education, and World Citizenship, by Alain Locke, in World Order, 38:3 (2008). The Preservation of the Democratic Ideal; Stretching Our Social Mind; On Becoming World Citizens; Creative Democracy. Includes introduction by Buck and Fisher. [about]
  496. Fragility of Goodness, The: Hexis and Praxis in the Historical Figure of 'Abdu'l-Baha, by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). How personal character and activity can survive negative pressures from the external world, and what can be learned from the example of Abdu'l-Bahá's social action. [about]
  497. Freedom and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Bahá'í philosophy is based on principles of reason and non-contradiction. It is coherent because its teachings are interdependent and mutually supportive. The Writings cover a spectrum of issues about freedom and the metaphysical basis of free will. [about]
  498. Freud's Transference and the Four States of Bahá'u'lláh, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). On the tetrarchic structure of Bahá'u'lláh's "Firstness and lastness, outwardness and inwardness" and Freud's concept of transferences, which are impulses from the past that the patient experiences as present and mistakenly relates back to the therapist. [about]
  499. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Whilst the modern period has seen a series of scientific paradigm shifts which have radically altered the scientific understanding of man and nature, no theory of religion has had similar success; the potential of the Bahá’í perspective. [about]
  500. From Babism to Bahá'ísm: Problems of Militancy, Quietism, and Conflation in the Construction of a Religion, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 13:3 (1983). One of the first critical examinations of Bábí history; a continuation of themes first examined in "The Bábí Concept of Holy War." Includes examination of the numbers of Bábí martyrs, the nature of Orientalism, and Western re-interpretations of the Babis. [about]
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