Messages to America

      The communications from the Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith included in this book were addressed to the National Spiritual Assembly, to the Annual Conventions and to the Bahá’í community of North America from June 21, 1932 to December 3, 1946. All of them have been given current publication in BAHÁ’Í NEWS except the two longer messages entitled "The Spiritual Potencies of That Consecrated Spot," dated December 21, 1939, and "A God-Given Mandate" dated June 15, 1946, both of which were issued separately for the Bahá’ís.
      In 1940 the letters and cablegrams received up to July 21 of that year were published in a temporary pamphlet entitled "Messages from the Guardian." The present compilation gives a survey of American Bahá’í development over a term of fourteen crucial years marked by the shift of interest from the development of the administrative order to the teaching mission conferred upon the American Bahá’í community, by the rise of the first Seven Year Plan which completed the exterior ornamentation of the House of Worship, laid the basis of the new spiritual order in the unsettled States and Provinces of North America, and carried the Bahá’í message to Central and South America, by the deterioration of international affairs culminating in the second World War, and by the inauguration of the second Seven Year Plan in 1946 with its four objectives as described in the Guardian's message to the Convention in that year.
      Though the aim of most of these communications calls for fulfillment in action, the Guardian's messages are more than chapters in a historical record which can be closed and laid away. They will remain a source of guidance and inspiration to the members of the Faith, of training to the new believers, and a witness to the general public of the power emanating from the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh to create a new spiritual order on the wreckage of the past.
      During this same period Shoghi Effendi, in addition to his frequent and more intimate messages to the Bahá’ís, wrote the more general works published under the titles of "The Advent of Divine Justice," "The Promised Day is Come," and "God Passes By," besides several chapters of the work, entitled "The World Order of Bahá’u’lláh." His general letters to the American Bahá’ís written from the inauguration of the Guardianship in January, 1922 to 1932 will be found in "Bahá’í Administration."

Wilmette, Illinois
January 15, 1947


Nabíl's Narrative, June 21, 19321
Immortal Spirit, July 15, 19321
United Will, Concerted Action, October 27, 19321
Non-Participation in Political Affairs, March 16, 19332
Personalities Subordinated, April 11, 19332
Momentous Convention, June 1, 19333
An Eminent Rank, October 30, 19333
Potentialities of Majestic Edifice, June 4, 19343
The Voting Right, April 28, 19353
Unprecedented Impetus, April 29, 19354
Separation from Outworn Creeds, June 15, 19354
The National Fund, July 29, 19355
The New Hour Has Struck, October 26, 19355
This Is Truly Providential, January 10, 19366
‘Abdu’l-Bahá's Historic Appeal, May 1, 19366
Fresh Conquests and Unprecedented Triumphs, May 30, 19367
Intensify Teaching Work a Thousandfold, July 28, 19367
Significance of the Undertaking, November 14, 19368
A Complete Rededication, March 22, 19378
Institution of Guardianship Now Further Reinforced, March 30, 19378
Dual Gift, May 1, 19379
The Call Has Gone Forth…The Path is Clear, June 4, 19379
Convention Delegates Increased, November 21, 193710
All Should Arise, November 25, 193710
Archbreaker of Covenant, December 20, 193711
Certain Vital Requirements of Seven Year Plan, January 30, 193811
A Year Has Almost Elapsed, April 14, 193812
Draw Nigh Unto Bahá’u’lláh, April 27, 193813
Marching Toward Their Goal, July 5, 193813
Unbroken Solidarity, Unquenchable Enthusiasm, September 10, 193814
Loyalty to World Order of Bahá’u’lláh, September 24, 193815
Nine Holy Souls, January 26, 193916
The Rarest Privilege, January 28, 193916
God's Creative Plan, February 8, 193918
Approach of Final Eruption, March 24, 193918
Gratitude to Pioneers, April 1, 193919
My Supreme Entreaty, April 17, 193919
Penetration of Latin America, April 28, 193920
That Priceless Heritage, May 22, 193921
Inauguration of World Mission, May 28, 193923
Fulfil the Requirements, July 4, 193923
The Most Fateful Hour, July 28, 193926
Imperilled Humanity, August 30, 193929
In Galaxy of Bahá’í Immortals, October 3, 193930
Mandate Conferred by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, October 23, 193930
The Spiritual Potencies of That Consecrated Spot, December 21, 193931
The Seal of Complete Triumph, December 30, 193936
Urgent Obligation, January 18, 194038
Beloved Handmaid, March 3, 194038
Their God-Given Task, April 15, 194038
Bahá’u’lláh's Spiritual Sovereignty, April 25, 194040
Section of Ornamentation, April 27, 194041
Continuous Consecration, May 15, 194041
Emergence of Spiritual World Order, June 13, 194042
Supremely Challenging Hour, July 21, 194042
Chaos and Redemption, October 29, 194043
Torchbearers of World Civilization, December 3, 194044
This Veteran Warrior, February 21, 194145
The Anger of God and His Correction, May 25, 194145
Fate-Laden World Ordeal, July 4, 194148
Elizabeth Greenleaf, August 7, 194148
Unconquerable Power, August 12, 194149
The Process of Integration and Disintegration, November 22, 194152
The Crucible of World Conflagration, December 13, 194153
A Truly World-Embracing Crisis, January 15, 194254
Impelled To Deputize Five Members, April 26, 194255
The Seven Year Plan, May 26, 194256
Consecrated To Teaching Tasks, June 17, 194256
A Befitting Climax, August 15, 194257
Acclaim With Grateful Heart, November 30, 194258
The Immortal Lua, January 7, 194358
The Unfinished Tasks, January 8, 194359
Completion of Temple Exterior, January 18, 194359
His Services Unforgettable, January 18, 194360
All-America Centennial Convention, April 14, 194360
Foundationstone Laid By the Center of the Covenant, March 28, 1943 61
Bahá’í Communities of East and West, May 27, 194363
The Crowning Crusade, August 2, 194364
Preparations for the Centenary, August 8, 194365
The Beloved Faith Is Surging Forward, October 5, 194366
A Still More Compelling Display, November 16, 194366
The Auspicious Year, January 4, 194467
Addition to Endowments, January 16, 194468
Participation of Latin American Believers, January 29, 194468
Befittingly Consummate the Enterprises, April 2, 194469
Turningpoint in Bahá’í History, April 15, 194469
International Achievement, May 9, 194471
Message to Centenary Convention, May 15, 194472
Consolidation of Nobly-Won Victories, May 27, 194473
A Spiritual Assembly In Every Remaining Republic, July 17, 194474
The Seal of Spiritual Triumph, August 18, 194474
Faithful Pioneer, November 19, 194475
Passages in "God Passes By," November 21, 194475
The Succeeding Stage in the Evolution of Their World Mission, December 24, 194476
The Admission of Persians, January 20, 194577
Staunch Pioneer, March 27, 194578
The One Message That Can Extricate Humanity, March 29, 194578
My Heavy-Ladened Heart, April 21, 194580
Nationwide, Intercontinental Plans, May 8, 194580
A Single, Organically, United World Commonwealth, May 12, 194580
A New Phase of Human Evolution, August 10, 194582
Hearts Uplifted in Thanksgiving, August 20, 194583
The Work of Rehabilitation, December 21, 194584
The German Bahá’í Community, December 31, 194585
Exemplary Pioneer, December 31, 194585
Lydia Zamenhof, January 28, 194686
Historic Decisions, February 25, 194686
Momentous Responsibilities, March 25, 194686
Inauguration of Second Seven Year Plan, April 25, 194687
Spiritual Conquest of the Old World, June 5, 194689
Thirty New Assemblies, June 13, 194690
A God-Given Mandate, June 15, 194690
The Utmost Vigor, Vigilance and Consecration, July 20, 1946104
Distinguished Servant, July 29, 1946106
This National and International Crusade, October 5, 1946106
The Forces Mysteriously Released, October 7, 1946108
The Pivot On Which Hinges Success, December 3, 1946108
Messages to 1941 Convention, April 23, 1941110


1--Nabíl's Narrative: The Dawn-Breakers, Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, translated and edited by Shoghi Effendi, 1932.
1--Greatest Holy Leaf: Bahíyyih Khánum, the sister of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, was known both as the Greatest Holy Leaf and the Most Exalted Leaf. Tributes to her life, including one by Shoghi Effendi, may be found in The Bahá'í World, V., pp. 169-188.
1--Mashriqu'l-Adhkár: literally "the dawning place of the praise of God." It is this term which Bahá’u’lláh used to designate the Bahá’í House of Worship.
3--Supreme Concourse: the Manifestations of God and those souls who have passed from this earth and advanced to a great station in the spiritual worlds of God.
3--Keith Ransom-Kehler; designated by Shoghi Effendi as a Hand of the Cause of God, died at Isfáhán, Persia, October 23, 1933, while on a mission to that country to seek permission for the importation and circulation of Bahá’í literature. See The Bahá'í World, V, pp. 389-411.
4--separation from Islamic institutions: For a full discussion of these historic events, see God Passes By, chap. XXIV.
4--Formative Period: term used by Shoghi Effendi to designate that period in the history of the Faith beginning in 1921 with the Ascension of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the reading of His Will and Testament.
6--Tablets of The Divine Plan: a series of challenging letters written during World War I by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the American and Canadian Bahá’ís, urging them to assume responsibility for establishing the Faith throughout the world. The Tablets are contained in America's Spiritual Mission.
3--Hands of the Cause: special workers under the direction of the Guardian, Hands of the Cause were first appointed by Bahá’u’lláh. See World Order of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 110, 147, 149.
8-9--"Institution of the Guardianship Now Further reinforced"; This cable and the one immediately following it refer to the marriage of Shoghi Effendi to Ruhíyyih Khánum, née Miss Mary Maxwell of Montreal.
8--Twin Founders: the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh. Shoghi Effendi is the great-grandson of Bahá’u’lláh and also a descendant of the Báb.
11--Archbreaker of the Covenant: Mírzá Muhammad-’Alí. See the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, also God Passes By, chap. XV.
14--Community of the Most Great Name: the followers of Bahá’u’lláh throughout the world.
12--Abhá Kingdom: a phrase found frequently in the Bahá’í writings, refers to a high spiritual world of God.
20--Martha L. Root: called by the Guardian "the foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since 'Abdu'l-Baha's passing." She circled the globe four times in her twenty years of travel teaching the Faith. See God Passes By, pp. 386-396.
23--World Mission: refers to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of the Divine Plan. See America's Spiritual Mission.
29--Holy Charter: the Tablets of the Divine Plan.
30--Mandate: the Tablets of the Divine Plan created the world-wide teaching mandate or mission conferred upon the American Bahá’ís.
31--Mount Carmel: one of the most sacred places in Bahá’í history. Here in beautiful gardens are the Shrine of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá and memorials to other members of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's family. See Gleanings, pp. 14, 211, and God Passes By, p. 194.
31--Covenant-breakers: refers to those individuals who have turned against the Faith and attempted to pervert the teachings and destroy the institutions created by Bahá’u’lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
31--Purest Branch: title given to Mírzá Mihdí, brother of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. See God Passes By, p. 188.
31--'Akká: the prison-city in Palestine where Bahá’u’lláh was finally exiled. He arrived there on August 31, 1868. See God Passes By chaps. XI and XII.
31--Navváb: Ásíyih Khánum, wife of Bahá'u'lláh. See God Passes By, p. 347.
32--Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh: refers to the house at Bahjí, near 'Akká, where Bahá'u'lláh was permitted by the civil authorities to live the last years of His life. See God Passes By, pp. 193-194.
32--Twin institutions of the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice: for a discussion of these crowning institutions of the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh, see World Order of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 143-157.
34--Most Exalted Leaf: This title here refers to Navváb to whom it was first given. Later the same title was sometimes applied to Bahíyyih Khánum.
34--Crimson Book: A Tablet revealed by Bahá’u’lláh.
34--Day-Spring, Dawning-Place, Source of His commandments: refer to Bahá’u’lláh as the Manifestation of God.
34--Manifestation: a Bahá’í term referring to the Person chosen by God in each age to be the vehicle of a divine revelation to man. See Some Answered Questions, pp. 3-95, 163-205.
34--My Pen: a term frequently used by Bahá’u’lláh to symbolize the power of the Holy Spirit acting through Him as a Manifestation of God. In the experiences Bahá’u’lláh had while imprisoned in the dungeon in Tihrán He dreamed that a Voice said: "Verily, We shall render Thee victorious by Thyself and by Thy Pen." See God Passes By, pp. 101-103.
34--Abhá Horizon: the blessed place attained by the true believer in the spiritual world.
34--Lord of Names: a symbol of the Manifestation of God.
33--Central Figures of our Faith: the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, and 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
35--Divine Lote-Tree: refers to the Manifestation of God. Here the reference is specifically to Bahá’u’lláh.
36--Bahá: a title given by the Báb to Bahá’u’lláh. It means literally "Glory," "Splendor," "Light."
38--May Maxwell: died on March 1, 1940, in Buenos Aires. For an account of her life, see The Bahá’í World, VIII, pp. 631-642.
40--Hazíratu'l-Quds: the administrative headquarters of the Faith.
41--Bahá’u’lláh's Commonwealth: the world social system envisioned in Bahá’u’lláh's teachings.
43--Golden Age: the age of world civilization founded on the teachings of Bahá’u’lláh. See The Golden Age in World Order of Bahá’u’lláh.
45--Father Dunn: In 1919 John Henry Hyde Dunn with his wife left San Francisco and settled in Australia in response to 'Abdu'l-Bahá's appeal in the Divine Plan. They established the Faith in Australia and New Zealand. See The Bahá’í World, IX, pp. 593-597.
48--Elizabeth Greenleaf: for details of her service to the Faith, see The Bahd'i World, IX, p. 608.
49--Beloved: the term as used here refers to 'Abdu'l-Bahá,
50--Covenant: see God Passes By, chap. XIV.
51--Herald of the Faith: the Báb (1819-1850).
51--Author of the Faith: Bahá’u’lláh (1817-1892).
51--Center of His Covenant: 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1844-1921).
51--nominee of the Báb: Mírzá Yahya. See God Passes By, p. 28 and chap. X.
53--royal adversary: Bahá’u’lláh was opposed by both the Sháh of Persia and the Sultán of Turkey. After His Ascension, successive Sháh's continued to suppress the Faith. This reference is to the late Sháh Pahlaví.
53--Abdu'l-Fadl: a great Persian teacher sent to America in 1902 by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to teach the early believers. See The Bahá’í Centenary, pp. 143-144; The Bahá’í World, IX, pp. 855-860.
53--Lua Getsinger: early American Bahá’í teacher. Another cable referring to her is found on p. 58. See The Bahá’í World, VIII, p. 642.
55--Qayyúmu'l-Asmá': a book written by the Báb in the early part of His ministry. See God Passes By, p. 23.
55--Most Holy Book: Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Aqdas, See God Passes By, pp. 213-216.
55--Lesser Peace: the political peace to be established by the statesmen preceding the Most Great Peace. See World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, p. 162.
58--City of the Covenant: New York City, the city in America where in 1912 'Abdu'l-Bahá unfolded the implications of the Covenant. See Promulgation of Universal Peace, pp. 451-453.
59--"Apostles": the American Bahá’ís.
60--Mathew Kaszab: pioneer Bahá’í teacher in Nicaragua. See The Bahá’í World, IX, pp. 614-616.
75--John Stearns: pioneer Bahá'í teacher in Ecuador.
78--Mary Lesch: for many years prior to 1924 the head of the Bahá’í Publishing Society in Chicago.
85--Emogene Hoagg: well-known Bahá’í teacher.
88--Lydia Zamenhof: a daughter of Dr. Zamenhof, the inventor of Esperanto. She taught the Faith in Europe and visited the United States in 1937. During the War she met her death in a Nazi concentration camp in Poland. Commemorative meetings for Miss Zamenhof were held throughout the United States and Canada during the latter part of October, 1946.
90--Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws, referred to as the "Most Holy Book." See God Passes By, pp. 213-216.
99--"Year Nine"; 1853, the year when Bahá’u’lláh became aware of His prophetic mission. See God Passes By, p. 29, chap. VI.
99--Siyáh-Chál: the underground dungeon in Tihrán where Bahá’u’lláh became aware of His divine mission.
99--Bayán: meaning literally "Exposition," the title of the principal work of the Báb. See God Passes By, pp. 24-26.
99--Hin: an Islamic reference to a calendar date.
102--Yá-Bahá'u'l-Abhá: literally "Thou Glory of the Most Glorious."
106--John Bosch: with his wife Louise gave the first buildings and property for the Bahá’í School at Geyserville, California. Their journey to the South Seas is recounted in an early volume of The Bahá'í World. Mr. and Mrs. Bosch were pilgrims at Haifa at the time of the Master's Ascension, April 28, 1921.

‘Abdu’l-Bahá a chief objective of His ministry, 91 love showered upon American community, 102, 103 promise of victory to American believers, 12, 92, 98 quotations from, 12, 13, 17, 35, 92, 98, 99, 102 references to future of America, 91, 92 Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of His passing, 108 Abu'l-Fadl, 53 Administration agency for carrying out the Divine Plan, 92 "Administrative Seat," 24 Affiliation with organizations, 4 All-America Centennial, 60 America 'Abdu'l-Bahá's references to, 91, 92, 98 Bahá’u’lláh's reference to, 91 American believers, destiny to usher in World Order of Bahá’u’lláh, 9 "Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh," 92 Archbreaker of Bahá’u’lláh's Covenant, 11 Báb, 100 His appeal to the West, 90 portrait of, 60 Badi'ullah, 32 Bahá’u’lláh, 99 became aware of His mission, 100 Covenant of, 50 draw nigh unto, 13, 55 quotations from, 17, 25, 27, 31, 33, 34, 35, 47, 100 Bahíyyih Khánum (see Greatest Holy Leaf) Bosch, John, 106 Believers duties toward mankind, 27 enrollment of, 11 removal of, 2 responsibilities and opportunities, 10, 22, 28 triple call to, 26 voting right, 3 Canada, 94 Carmel, 31, 36 Centenary approaching, 38, 44, 47, 55, 62 delegates from Latin America, 60 directions for celebration, 62 preparations for, 65 Christ, 100 Churches, separation from, 4 Collins, Mrs., 13 Confirmations to pioneers, 17 Convention delegates increased, 10 Latin American delegates to attend Centenary, 60 Convention messages 1933. 3 1934. 3 1935. 4 1936. 6 1937. 9 1938. 13 1939. 20 1940. 40 1941. 110 1942. 55 1943. 60 1944 (Centenary), 72 1946, 87 Covenant Ahmad Sohrab, 49, 50, 58 Archbreaker, 11, 32 Covenant-breakers, 75, 80, 103 Daniel, 101 Dunn, Father, 45 Divine Plan (see Tablets of the Divine Plan) Europe development of Plan, 95, 96 European Teaching Committee, 89, 96 pivot of Second Seven Year Plan, 109 rehabilitation of believers, 84 Second Seven Year Plan, 88, 89, 94, 95, 96 Faith crises in, 51 emancipation of, 4, 5 first century of, 96 invincibility of, 104 resistance to its enemies, 49 second century of, 90, 96 Fund, National, 5, 36 Geneva Bureau, 89 German believers, 85, 86 Getsinger, Lua, 53, 58 God-Given Mandate, 90-104 God Passes By, 75 Greatest Holy Leaf, 1, 37 burial, 31 Greenleaf, Elizabeth, 48 Guardian cables referring to marriage, 8, 9 family members, 75 gratitude of, 49, 58 Guardianship, "head cornerstone," 8 Hands of the Cause Keith Ransom-Kehler, 3 Martha Root, 30 Hair of Bahá’u’lláh, 61 Hazíratu'l-Quds, 23, 40 Hin, 99 Hoagg, Emogene, 85 Inter-America Committee, 23 International endowments, 71 International progress of Faith, 71 International relief, 86 Kaszab, Mathew, 60 Keith Ransom-Kehler, 3, 40 Kitáb-i-Aqdas, 90, 91 Latin America, 7, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 25, 38, 44, 74, 76, 80, 94, 105 delegates to attend Centenary Convention, 60, 68 Lesch, Mary, 78 Local assemblies enrollment of believers, 11 Loyalty, 15 Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, 6, 25 "Ark," 30 association with Navváb and Purest Branch, 36 completion of dome, 5 completion of exterior, 52, 59, 61, 63 Completion of interior, 94 exterior ornamentation, 9 final stage, 16 first story, 25, 37 Mother Temple of the West, 24, 61 potentialities of, 3 Maxwell, May, 38, 39 Moses, 100 Most Exalted Leaf (see Navváb) Muhammad, 100 Nabíl's Narrative, 1 National Fund, 5, 36 National Office in Wilmette, 23, 40 National Secretariat, 23, 40 National Spiritual Assembly, 7, 11, 12, 19, 21, 38, 104 National Spiritual Assemblies, formation of, 94 National Teaching Committee, 20, 90 Navváb, 31, 34, 35 Isaiah, chap. 54, 35 prayer to, 35 station of, 35 "Nine Holy Souls," 16 Non-participation in politics, 2 Opposition, 50, 51, 52 Persians, 77 Personalities subordinate to institutions, 2 Pioneers, 44 be steadfast, 30 call for, 16, 56, 57 confirmations of Supreme Concourse, 17 gratitude to, 19 in Latin America, 16 Persian families, 63 to Europe, 89 Words of Bahá’u’lláh, 25 Politics, non-participation, 2 assign no blame, 15 Portrait of the Báb, 60 Purest Branch, 31, 33, 34 Qayyúmu'l-Asmá', 90 Rehabilitation, 84 Relief, international, 84, 86 Removal of believers, 2 Root, Martha, 20, 30, 39, 40 Seven Year Plan (First), 7, 9, 10, 16, 38 completion near, 56, 57, 64, 67 consummation, 69, 70, 74, 81, 82 inauguration of, 9 May Maxwell, 38 pioneers for settlement, 16, 18 summary of achievements, 97 vital requirements, 11 Seven Year Plan (Second), 97, 104 celebrations at completion, 100 challenging duty of American believers, 106, 107 concentration on present responsibilities, 101, 104 difficulties to be faced, 102, 104 "forces mysteriously released," 108 goals of entire Plan, 93, 94 goals for second year, 90 implications cannot be measured, 90, 93 inauguration of, 87, 88 Objectives can be achieved, 93 pivot of success of Plan, 109 promises of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, 98, 99 reliance upon God, 102 sources of its creative power, 90, 91, 92 Seven Year Plan (Third), 88, 101 World triumph of the Faith, 101 Shaykh-Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, 99 Shrines, 31, 32 endowments, 68 pilgrimages, 33 section of Temple, 41 spiritual potencies, 33 Síyáh-Chál, 99 Sohrab, Ahmad, 49, 50, 58, 103 Spiritual Potencies of That Consecrated Spot, 33 St. John the Divine, 99 Stearns, John, 75 StudyNabíl's Narrative, 1 Supreme Concourse, 17 Tablets of the Divine Plan, 6, 7, 12, 91, 92 Administration, means of achievement, 92, 97 key to destiny of American believers, 8 promises of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, 98, 99 Teaching (see Seven Year Plans) international achievements, 71 intensify effort, 7 maintain and renew efforts, 78, 80 progress, 8 prosecution of Plan, 9, 12, 16, 19, 20 systematic plan, 7, 9 twofold task, 19, 20 victories, 73 Temple (see Mashriqu'l-Adhkár) "time of the end," 14 Twin processes (integration and disintegration), 13, 42, 52 Universal House of Justice, 94 Voting right of believers, 3 War, 18, 29, 39, 42, 43, 45, 48, 53 causes, 46 end, 80, 82, 83, 84 entrance of United States 54 World Order, 9, 28, 96, 97 "Year Nine," 99 Zamenhof, Lydia, 86 Zoroaster, 100